So lets begin with the introduction part. So what does it mean by being monolinguals, bilinguals and multilinguals? A person who can speak only one language is monolingual while the person or society who can speak two languages will be considered as bilingual and so the peoples who can speak two or more than two languages are multilingual. However the Bilingualism and multilingualism can be categorized as same.
Lets talk about some facts around the world. In major metros of Central, South and East India, many children may be fluent in four languages (the mother tongue, the state language, and the official languages of India, Hindi and English.) Thus a child of Gujarati parents living in Bangalore will end up speaking their mother tongue (Gujarati) at home and the state language (Kannada), Hindi and English in school and their surroundings.
There are two types of multilingualism. First is Additive and second is Subtractive. QUEBEC is the only Canadian province that has a predominantly French-speaking population, and the only one to have French as its sole provincial official language.
subtractive bilingualism: When learning a second language interferes with the learning of a first language. The second language replaces the first language. This is commonly found in children who emigrate to a foreign country when they are young, especially in cases of orphans who are deprived of their first language input. This can be contrasted to additive bilingualism.
Take for example our Indian research company DRDO wants enough multilingual peoples. Why ? Because they can help in deal with people of other countries in various aspects like u can say business deals, project ideas etcetera in various languages without the need of translator and hence there will be saving of time and of course money. Which is most important aspects of any business.
No I will talk about various ways of acquisitions of bilingualism.
For example: 1.Those who become bilingual as adults or in early life. 2. Infants exposed to two languages from birth. 3. Children in Mexican immigrant households hear English on TV, in stores etc., but use their home language (Spanish) in everyday communication. When they enter preschool, these children are likely to make rapid progress in English because their receptive language skills in English has been developed.
Simultaneous bilingualism L1 and L2 are learned at the same time.
Consecutive bilinguals are those people who learned their second language (or further additional languages) after their first, usually through schooling and/or as the result of shifting to another country or language context. They are also sometimes referred to as sequential bilinguals.
Simultaneous bilingualism is a form of bilingualism that takes place when a child becomes bilingual by learning two languages from birth.
1. situations in which a child acquires both languages in a naturalistic setting without any structured instruction. 2. situations in which a child acquires one of the languages in a structured setting, usually in school. 3. no separation of context for both languages; child is exposed to both languages in the same context. 4. one parent, one language model; but also applies to other interlocutors, i.e., siblings, peers, grandparents, etc. 5. individuals who have some element of choice about learning a second language. 6. individuals who have no choice about learning a second language; indigenous colonized or minority groups.
Now lets talk about degrees of bilingualism and they are..
Now lets in detail all the degrees of bilingualism. First of them is Balanced bilinguals, the people who fully competent in both the languages are said to be balanced bilinguals. It is almost impossible for speakers to get fully competent in both the language he speaks.
A dominant bilinguals said to be a person being more proficient in one of the two languages he speaks. (this happens in most cases native-like). For example we Indians are more proficient in speaking our mother tongue Hindi than that of our second language English. So we are the dominant speakers of Hindi and knowing English as second language, we are dominant bilinguals. However Dominance does not apply to all domains. One may be dominant in the subordinate language in some domains.
A person is said to be passive or recessive bilingual who is a native speaker in one language and is capable of understanding but not speaking another language. For example lets say I completely understand the Punjabi language but not able to speak it frequently, so I am the passive bilingual.
Semilingualism is a phenomenon, which relates to underdevelopment of language in individual. Different linguists define semilingualism differently, but they all agree that the concept involves a partial knowledge of two or more languages.
Research has shown that bilingualism is beneficial for children’s development and their future. Children exposed to different languages become more aware of different cultures, other people and other points of view. But they also tend to be better than monolinguals at ‘multitasking’ and focusing attention, they often are more precocious readers, and generally find it easier to learn other languages. Bilingualism gives children much more than two languages.
Same like in hindi we use for greetings is KAISE/KAISI HO/HAINFor farewell we use MILTE HAIN/ JATA/JATI HU For appreciation we use DHANYAWAD For someone’s attention we use SUNIYE JARA For applogies we use Kshama kijiye/ maaf kijiye and for formalities we use KRIPAYA/ KRIPA KARKE.
There are some things to remember….
These are some headlines in the news around the world nowadays on Bilingualism. You can take a look over it.
That would be all from my side. Here are the references which I used to make this presentation.
Bilingualism and Multilingualism_Sajeed Mahaboob
A Presentation by:
Instructors: Dr. Somdev Kar and Dr. K.K. Chaudhary
What does it mean by being…
75% of the world’s population speaks two or more
Not all bilinguals speak two languages at the same
In India, school children may routinely learn multiple
languages based on where they reside in the country.
By the age of 2.5 years, a bilingual child begins to
make choices in language use, usually the majority
Parents who want their children to retain their heritage
language must work at it.27-06-2014 3
Types of Multilingualism
Learning of the second language does not interfere with first
English speakers in QUEBEC often learn French to upgrade
Learning of second language does interfere (replaces) with
Successive US immigrant generations eventually become
monolingual English speakers.
Tolerance & respect towards other cultures
Broadens employment opportunities
Increases vocabulary & effectiveness of speech
Importance of being multilingual
Ways of Acquisition
Learning one language after already knowing another.
Learning two languages as “first language”.
Having the ability to understand a second language but not
speaking it or not being able to speak it due to psychological
Ways of Acquisition
• Most bilinguals are consecutive.
• No two bilinguals are alike.
•Studies have shown that features of L1 can
have a powerful influence on L2.
• L1 “transfer” can be positive or negative.
Studies examining true simultaneous bilinguals are rare.
Brain imaging studies show a spread in activation across
left and right hemispheres.
Primary context/Natural Bilingualism
Secondary context / school bilingualism
Naturalistic fused setting
Naturalistic separate setting
Context of Bilingual Language
Passive or Recessive Bilinguals
Semi-lingual or Limited Bilinguals
Degrees of Bilingualism
Fully competent in both languages.
- Almost impossible to achieve
- Sociolinguistic forces demand that bilinguals
organize their languages in functionally
complementary spheres. No society needs two
languages to perform the same set of functions.
Individuals who are dominant in other language.
-Less dominant language = Subordinate
-Dominance does not apply to all domains
-One may be dominant in the subordinate
language in some domains.
Individuals who are gradually losing competence in one
language, usually because of disuse.
- common among immigrant groups.
- often loose productive skills while
retaining receptive skills.
Passive or Recessive Bilinguals
• Individuals who appear to have limited proficiency in
both languages. Deficit in six language competencies.
• correctness of language
• unconscious processing of language (automation)
• language creation
• mastery of the functions of language (e.g., emotive,
• meanings and imagery
• Size of vocabulary
Semi-lingual or Limited
Bilingualism is beneficial for children’s development and
Bilingual children internalize negative states and
externalize aggression less frequently.
Future languages are easier to learn and the native
language is enhanced.
Increased executive functions and decision-making
Bilinguals earn on average of $7000 more than their
Delays the onset of Alzheimer and dementia as well as
other neurological issues.
The benefits of being bilingual
Different words are used for Greetings,
farewell, To express Appreciations, To get
Someone’s attentions, Formalities and
Apologies in major languages in the world.
Now I will show you the data of
Percentage of Bilingual speakers
around the world.
By: US Census bureau, 2007
American community survey
There are probably both costs and benefits of learning two
languages at once.
L2 acquisition in adulthood and later childhood is
difficult because it is not like L1 acquisition.
There has been much debate as to how we translate
words between languages.
Translation probably does involve conceptual mediation.
Bilingualism is a useful tool for studying other language
Speaking two languages may slow brain aging.
UofE study on Bilingualism and Dementia takes the
media by storm.
Learning young, Antonella Sorace writes for the
Bilingualism and Special Needs
Bilingualism in News