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A Presentation by:
Sajeed Mahaboob
2011ME1111
Instructors: Dr. Somdev Kar and Dr. K.K. Chaudhary
27-06-2014 1

Introduction
Monolingual?
Bilingual?
Multilingual?
What does it mean by being…
27-06-2014 2

Introduction
 75% of the world’s population speaks two or more
languages.
 Not all bilinguals speak two languages at t...

Types of Multilingualism
27-06-2014 4
 Additive:
Learning of the second language does not interfere with first
language...

Personal growth
Tolerance & respect towards other cultures
Job Mobility
Abroad Study
Broadens employment opportunit...

Successive
Sequential
Receptive
27-06-2014 6
Ways of Acquisition

 Successive Bilingualism
Learning one language after already knowing another.
 Simultaneous Bilingualism:
Learning two...

27-06-2014 8
• Most bilinguals are consecutive.
• No two bilinguals are alike.

27-06-2014 9
•Studies have shown that features of L1 can
have a powerful influence on L2.
• L1 “transfer” can be positiv...

27-06-2014 10
 Studies examining true simultaneous bilinguals are rare.
 Brain imaging studies show a spread in activa...

Primary context/Natural Bilingualism
Secondary context / school bilingualism
Naturalistic fused setting
Naturalistic...

Balanced Bilinguals
Dominant Bilinguals
Passive or Recessive Bilinguals
Semi-lingual or Limited Bilinguals
27-06-201...

 Fully competent in both languages.
- Almost impossible to achieve
- Sociolinguistic forces demand that bilinguals
orga...

 Individuals who are dominant in other language.
-Less dominant language = Subordinate
-Dominance does not apply to all...

 Individuals who are gradually losing competence in one
language, usually because of disuse.
- common among immigrant g...

• Individuals who appear to have limited proficiency in
both languages. Deficit in six language competencies.
• correctn...

 Bilingualism is beneficial for children’s development and
their future.
 Bilingual children internalize negative stat...

Different words are used for Greetings,
farewell, To express Appreciations, To get
Someone’s attentions, Formalities and...

Now I will show you the data of
Percentage of Bilingual speakers
around the world.
By: US Census bureau, 2007
American c...

 There are probably both costs and benefits of learning two
languages at once.
 L2 acquisition in adulthood and later ...

 Speaking two languages may slow brain aging.
(http://www.bilingualism-matters.org.uk/learning-language-slow-brain-agin...

References
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multilingualism
 http://www.livingbilingual.com
 https://www.llas.ac.uk/reso...

27-06-2014 23
So… Ladies and gentlemen
Thanks for your Patience.
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Bilingualism and Multilingualism_Sajeed Mahaboob

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Bilingualism and Multilingualism_Sajeed Mahaboob

  1. 1. A Presentation by: Sajeed Mahaboob 2011ME1111 Instructors: Dr. Somdev Kar and Dr. K.K. Chaudhary 27-06-2014 1
  2. 2.  Introduction Monolingual? Bilingual? Multilingual? What does it mean by being… 27-06-2014 2
  3. 3.  Introduction  75% of the world’s population speaks two or more languages.  Not all bilinguals speak two languages at the same level.  In India, school children may routinely learn multiple languages based on where they reside in the country.  By the age of 2.5 years, a bilingual child begins to make choices in language use, usually the majority language  Parents who want their children to retain their heritage language must work at it.27-06-2014 3
  4. 4.  Types of Multilingualism 27-06-2014 4  Additive: Learning of the second language does not interfere with first language. English speakers in QUEBEC often learn French to upgrade business skills.  Subtractive: Learning of second language does interfere (replaces) with first language. Successive US immigrant generations eventually become monolingual English speakers.
  5. 5.  Personal growth Tolerance & respect towards other cultures Job Mobility Abroad Study Broadens employment opportunities Increases vocabulary & effectiveness of speech Importance of being multilingual nowadays… 27-06-2014 5
  6. 6.  Successive Sequential Receptive 27-06-2014 6 Ways of Acquisition
  7. 7.   Successive Bilingualism Learning one language after already knowing another.  Simultaneous Bilingualism: Learning two languages as “first language”.  Receptive Bilingualism: Having the ability to understand a second language but not speaking it or not being able to speak it due to psychological barriers. 27-06-2014 7 Ways of Acquisition
  8. 8.  27-06-2014 8 • Most bilinguals are consecutive. • No two bilinguals are alike.
  9. 9.  27-06-2014 9 •Studies have shown that features of L1 can have a powerful influence on L2. • L1 “transfer” can be positive or negative.
  10. 10.  27-06-2014 10  Studies examining true simultaneous bilinguals are rare.  Brain imaging studies show a spread in activation across left and right hemispheres.
  11. 11.  Primary context/Natural Bilingualism Secondary context / school bilingualism Naturalistic fused setting Naturalistic separate setting Elective bilinguals Circumstantial bilinguals 27-06-2014 11 Context of Bilingual Language Acquisition
  12. 12.  Balanced Bilinguals Dominant Bilinguals Passive or Recessive Bilinguals Semi-lingual or Limited Bilinguals 27-06-2014 12 Degrees of Bilingualism
  13. 13.   Fully competent in both languages. - Almost impossible to achieve - Sociolinguistic forces demand that bilinguals organize their languages in functionally complementary spheres. No society needs two languages to perform the same set of functions. 27-06-2014 13 Balanced Bilinguals
  14. 14.   Individuals who are dominant in other language. -Less dominant language = Subordinate -Dominance does not apply to all domains -One may be dominant in the subordinate language in some domains. 27-06-2014 14 Dominant Bilinguals
  15. 15.   Individuals who are gradually losing competence in one language, usually because of disuse. - common among immigrant groups. - often loose productive skills while retaining receptive skills. 27-06-2014 15 Passive or Recessive Bilinguals
  16. 16.  • Individuals who appear to have limited proficiency in both languages. Deficit in six language competencies. • correctness of language • unconscious processing of language (automation) • language creation • mastery of the functions of language (e.g., emotive, cognitive) • meanings and imagery • Size of vocabulary 27-06-2014 16 Semi-lingual or Limited Bilinguals
  17. 17.   Bilingualism is beneficial for children’s development and their future.  Bilingual children internalize negative states and externalize aggression less frequently.  Future languages are easier to learn and the native language is enhanced.  Increased executive functions and decision-making abilities.  Bilinguals earn on average of $7000 more than their monolingual peers.  Delays the onset of Alzheimer and dementia as well as other neurological issues. 27-06-2014 17 The benefits of being bilingual
  18. 18.  Different words are used for Greetings, farewell, To express Appreciations, To get Someone’s attentions, Formalities and Apologies in major languages in the world. 27-06-2014 18
  19. 19.  Now I will show you the data of Percentage of Bilingual speakers around the world. By: US Census bureau, 2007 American community survey 27-06-2014 19
  20. 20.   There are probably both costs and benefits of learning two languages at once.  L2 acquisition in adulthood and later childhood is difficult because it is not like L1 acquisition.  There has been much debate as to how we translate words between languages.  Translation probably does involve conceptual mediation.  Bilingualism is a useful tool for studying other language processes. 27-06-2014 20 Remember !!
  21. 21.   Speaking two languages may slow brain aging. (http://www.bilingualism-matters.org.uk/learning-language-slow-brain-aging/)  UofE study on Bilingualism and Dementia takes the media by storm. (http://www.bilingualism-matters.org.uk/uofe-study-bilingualism-dementia-takes-media-storm-2/)  Learning young, Antonella Sorace writes for the Scotsman. (http://www.bilingualism-matters.org.uk/learning-young-antonella-sorace-writes- scotsman/)  Bilingualism and Special Needs (http://www.bilingualism-matters.org.uk/bilingualism-special/) 27-06-2014 21 Bilingualism in News
  22. 22.  References  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multilingualism  http://www.livingbilingual.com  https://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/142  http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/docu ment/obo-9780199772810/obo-9780199772810- 0056.xml  http://www.bilingualism-matters.org.uk/  http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/life- bilingual/201207/can-first-language-be-totally- forgotten 27-06-2014 22
  23. 23.  27-06-2014 23 So… Ladies and gentlemen Thanks for your Patience.

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