Introduction to sociolinguistics

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Introduction to sociolinguistics

  1. 1. Aulia nNisa Khusnia, M.A Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto
  2. 2.  Example 1 Ray : Hi, mum Mum: Hi. You’re late Ray: Yeah, that bastard kept us in again What is sociolinguistics? Sociolinguistics is study the relationship between language and society (Holmes, 1995: 1)
  3. 3.  Sociolinguistics conveys social meaning  Language serves a range of functions 1) to ask for 2) to give people information 3) to express indignation 4) to express admiration and respect, etc.
  4. 4. 1. What you call your mother in different contexts: (a) Addressing her (i) at home alone with her (ii) on the telephone with friends listening (iii) in a shop (b) Referring to her (i) at home to another family member when she is present
  5. 5. (ii) at home to another family member when she is not present (iii) to an acquaintance who doesn’t know her (iv) to a sales assistant in a shop when she is present
  6. 6. (a) Addressing your mother (i) mum, mummy, mom, ma (ii) mother, mater. (iii) mother (b) Referring to your mother (i) mum, mom (ii) the old lady, our mam (iii) my mum (iv) my mother
  7. 7. Participant • Who is speaking • Who are they speaking to Setting • Where are they speaking to Topic and Function • What is being talked about? • Why are they speaking?
  8. 8. Social distance scale • (participant relationship) • Intimate relationship or distant relationship Status scale • Participant scale • Low varieties or high varieties Formality Scale & 2 functional scales • Setting or type of interaction • Relating to the purposes or topic of interaction
  9. 9. Why people use one set of forms in some contexts, but different forms in others The step which need to be taken in providing an explanation are 1. to identify clearly the linguistic variation involved e.g. vocabulary, sounds, grammatical construction, dialects, languages) 2. to identify clearly the different social or non- linguistics factors which lead speakers to use one form rather than another
  10. 10. e.g features relating to participants, setting or function of interaction
  11. 11.  When two varieties of the same language are used (H & L)  H formal e.g. religion, newspaper, broadcasting, education, etc  L informal e.g. education (discussion) , gossiping, and shopping
  12. 12.  Language shift use one language to different language two distinct codes in different domains use different varieties of just one language for their communicative need  Language death ( language are no longer spoken anywhere)  Language loss ( the process of language death gradually loss of fluency and competence by its speaker)
  13. 13.  Economic People learn English- dominated countries to get a job  Social (i) no active steps to maintain their ethnic language (ii) not see it as offering any advantages to their children
  14. 14. a. The pattern of language use more domains- more chances b. Demographic factors c. Attitudes to minority language identity and culture self esteem
  15. 15.  Vernacular language a language which has not been standardized and has no official status  Lingua francas describes a language serves as a regular means of communication between different linguistic groups in multilingual speech community
  16. 16. 1. has no native speaker 2. a means of communication between people who don’t have a common language 3. Pidgin linguistics structures such as: sound, vocabulary, grammatical features, a new variety ( borrowing/ emerging from some languages) 4. Example: in Papua New Guinea, Pidgin Chinese English spoken by Chinese languages a Neo Melanesia / Tok Piksin
  17. 17.  Jamaican Creol English based  Haitian Creol French based
  18. 18. from word to word from style to style from group to group
  19. 19.  Holmes, Janet.1996. Introduction to Sociolinguistic. England: Longman Group.  Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1998. An Introduction to sociolinguistics. USA: Blackwell Publisher Inc.

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