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Summary of the units

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Summary of the units
UNIT 1
GIVING INSTRUCTIONS
giving the instructions is that the student is prepared for learning through teacher
with instructions that are clear and precise with simple language that supports this
oral instructions will give you step by step
How to give classroom instructions effectively to students.
One of the most difficult things to get right is how to give classroom instructions to
students so they can succeed in all learning activities and so your lessons run
smoothly.
What might seem really clear to you as the teacher might be confusing for students
and often with confusion comes frustration, and the next step is student behavior
that disrupts the planned learning.
Make clear instructions can be a challenge. There is not a magic formula that
works for all students A variety of strategies will help to teachers reach a wider
range of students.
UNIT 2
WARMERS FILLERS AND ICEBREAKERS
The warm up of a lesson often receives less attention than it should. Teachers
spend a lot of time preparing explanations and worksheets to introduce and
practice the target language, for example. They then enter the classroom
unprepared for the first five or ten minutes. "Let's do something fun" usually
constitutes all the planning that goes into this stage of the lesson. Planning then
gets done on the way to the classroom, with the teacher pulling a game out of his
bag of tricks.
Every teacher with more than one month's experience is guilty, including myself.
But a well-planned, effective warm up offers more towards the lesson than just a bit
of fun.
Because it's the first activity of the lesson, the warm up sets the tone for the next
ninety minutes. An activity that students find too difficult, or even confusing, results
in a class of disinterested zombies. Similarly, a writing-based activity won't get the
students communicating. This then translates into a quiet class session in which
you have to prod and push the students to volunteer examples or simple answers.
A fun warm up, on the other hand, raises energy levels. Fun activities also produce
relaxed, less inhibited students. With the right warm up, you'll have created a
positive atmosphere to practice and experiment with the language.
UNIT 3
USING THE BOARD EFFECTIVELY!
Using the board is very important when you are teaching
something because if you write cleary in the board, the
student could understand better and they can see the
correct spelling of some words that are difficult to
remember.
Learning the correct use of the board is necessary
because here you can write some new words that the students don’t know the
meaning. Also in the board you can write some structures and sentences that are
very important when you teach the grammatical tenses.
In the board you can write the topics of the class and using draws and pictures,
you can teach better. In addition you can play some games to relax the class and
create a good enviroment to start teaching a new class.
Video № 1
TESL_ How to use the blackboard
Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Fhf0qVCIoc
I look in this video that the teacher show some tips and ideas how to organize your
lessons on the blackboard in the most effective way. First, she gave as a sugestion
that when we write on the board, we have to reveal what we are writing, and then a
student have to read, and if there are some difficult words, the student have to
spell them. If you assign an activity check if the student understand the instructions
and monitor while the students are working. You can use the blackboard to explain
anything like: draws, pictures, etc.
Also is very important write the date and write a lesson agenda to know what topics
are you going to explain in this class.
UNIT 4
TEACHING GRAMMAR
Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe
grammar as the "rules" of a language; but in fact no language has
rules. If we use the word "rules", we suggest that somebody
created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a
new game. But languages did not start like that.
Languages started by people making sounds which
evolved into words, phrases and sentences. No
commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages
change over time. What we call "grammar" is simply a
reflection of a language at a particular time.
 Grammar is the mental system of rules and
categories that allows humans to form and
interpret the words and sentences of their language.
 grammar adds meanings that are not easily inferable from the immediate
context.
Sometimes for teachers is very difficult teach grammar, because if you grow up in
an enviroment with english language, you learn grammar, you know the rules but
you can’t teach them. To teach gramar in a right way, we have to know the
different between inductive and deductive teaching.
In the inductive method, you teach grammar through a discovery process, let the
students know the rules doing some execises. In the deductive method, the
teacher explain the rules and the grammatical structure, then the teacher give
sentences or examples to a better understanding of a specific topic.
UNIT 5
PRESENTING VOCABULARY
There are lots of ways of getting across the meaning of a lexical item.
 Illustration
This is very useful for more concrete words (dog, rain, tall) and for visual learners.
It has its limits though, not all items can be drawn.
 Mime
This lends itself particularly well to action verbs and it can be fun and memorable.
 Synonyms/Antonyms/Gradable items
Using the words a student already knows can be effective for getting meaning
across.
 Definition
Make sure that it is clear (maybe check in a learner dictionary before the lesson if
you are not confident). Remember to ask questions to check they have understood
properly.
 Translation
If you know the students' L1, then it is fast and efficient. Remember that not every
word has a direct translation.
 Context
Think of a clear context when the word is used and either describe it to the
students or give them example sentences to clarify meaning further.
Again which you choose will depend on the item you are presenting. Some are
more suitable for particular words. Often a combination of techniques can be both
helpful and memorable

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Summary of the units

  • 2. UNIT 1 GIVING INSTRUCTIONS giving the instructions is that the student is prepared for learning through teacher with instructions that are clear and precise with simple language that supports this oral instructions will give you step by step How to give classroom instructions effectively to students. One of the most difficult things to get right is how to give classroom instructions to students so they can succeed in all learning activities and so your lessons run smoothly. What might seem really clear to you as the teacher might be confusing for students and often with confusion comes frustration, and the next step is student behavior that disrupts the planned learning. Make clear instructions can be a challenge. There is not a magic formula that works for all students A variety of strategies will help to teachers reach a wider range of students.
  • 3. UNIT 2 WARMERS FILLERS AND ICEBREAKERS The warm up of a lesson often receives less attention than it should. Teachers spend a lot of time preparing explanations and worksheets to introduce and practice the target language, for example. They then enter the classroom unprepared for the first five or ten minutes. "Let's do something fun" usually constitutes all the planning that goes into this stage of the lesson. Planning then gets done on the way to the classroom, with the teacher pulling a game out of his bag of tricks. Every teacher with more than one month's experience is guilty, including myself. But a well-planned, effective warm up offers more towards the lesson than just a bit of fun. Because it's the first activity of the lesson, the warm up sets the tone for the next ninety minutes. An activity that students find too difficult, or even confusing, results in a class of disinterested zombies. Similarly, a writing-based activity won't get the students communicating. This then translates into a quiet class session in which you have to prod and push the students to volunteer examples or simple answers. A fun warm up, on the other hand, raises energy levels. Fun activities also produce relaxed, less inhibited students. With the right warm up, you'll have created a positive atmosphere to practice and experiment with the language.
  • 4. UNIT 3 USING THE BOARD EFFECTIVELY! Using the board is very important when you are teaching something because if you write cleary in the board, the student could understand better and they can see the correct spelling of some words that are difficult to remember. Learning the correct use of the board is necessary because here you can write some new words that the students don’t know the meaning. Also in the board you can write some structures and sentences that are very important when you teach the grammatical tenses. In the board you can write the topics of the class and using draws and pictures, you can teach better. In addition you can play some games to relax the class and create a good enviroment to start teaching a new class. Video № 1 TESL_ How to use the blackboard Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Fhf0qVCIoc I look in this video that the teacher show some tips and ideas how to organize your lessons on the blackboard in the most effective way. First, she gave as a sugestion that when we write on the board, we have to reveal what we are writing, and then a student have to read, and if there are some difficult words, the student have to spell them. If you assign an activity check if the student understand the instructions and monitor while the students are working. You can use the blackboard to explain anything like: draws, pictures, etc. Also is very important write the date and write a lesson agenda to know what topics are you going to explain in this class.
  • 5. UNIT 4 TEACHING GRAMMAR Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe grammar as the "rules" of a language; but in fact no language has rules. If we use the word "rules", we suggest that somebody created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a new game. But languages did not start like that. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words, phrases and sentences. No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time.  Grammar is the mental system of rules and categories that allows humans to form and interpret the words and sentences of their language.  grammar adds meanings that are not easily inferable from the immediate context. Sometimes for teachers is very difficult teach grammar, because if you grow up in an enviroment with english language, you learn grammar, you know the rules but you can’t teach them. To teach gramar in a right way, we have to know the different between inductive and deductive teaching. In the inductive method, you teach grammar through a discovery process, let the students know the rules doing some execises. In the deductive method, the teacher explain the rules and the grammatical structure, then the teacher give sentences or examples to a better understanding of a specific topic.
  • 6. UNIT 5 PRESENTING VOCABULARY There are lots of ways of getting across the meaning of a lexical item.  Illustration This is very useful for more concrete words (dog, rain, tall) and for visual learners. It has its limits though, not all items can be drawn.  Mime This lends itself particularly well to action verbs and it can be fun and memorable.  Synonyms/Antonyms/Gradable items Using the words a student already knows can be effective for getting meaning across.  Definition Make sure that it is clear (maybe check in a learner dictionary before the lesson if you are not confident). Remember to ask questions to check they have understood properly.  Translation If you know the students' L1, then it is fast and efficient. Remember that not every word has a direct translation.  Context Think of a clear context when the word is used and either describe it to the students or give them example sentences to clarify meaning further. Again which you choose will depend on the item you are presenting. Some are more suitable for particular words. Often a combination of techniques can be both helpful and memorable
  • 7. UNIT 6 TEACHING LISTENING Listening is the language modality that is used most frequently. It has been estimated that adults spend almost half their communication time listening, and students may receive as much as 90% of their in-school information through listening to instructors and to one another. Often, however, language learners do not recognize the level of effort that goes into developing listening ability. Far from passively receiving and recording aural input, listeners actively involve themselves in the interpretation of what they hear, bringing their own background knowledge and linguistic knowledge to bear on the information contained in the aural text. Not all listening is the same; casual greetings, for example, require a different sort of listening capability than do academic lectures. Language learning requires intentional listening that employs strategies for identifying sounds and making meaning from them. Listening involves a sender (a person, radio, television), a message, and a receiver (the listener). Listeners often must process messages as they come, even if they are still processing what they have just heard, without backtracking or looking ahead. In addition, listeners must cope with the sender's choice of vocabulary, structure, and rate of delivery. The complexity of the listening process is magnified in second language contexts, where the receiver also has incomplete control of the language. Given the importance of listening in language learning and teaching, it is essential for language teachers to help their students become effective listeners. In the communicative approach to language teaching, this means modeling listening strategies and providing listening practice in authentic situations: those that learners are likely to encounter when they use the language outside the classroom.
  • 8. UNIT 7 TEACHING READING raditionally, the purpose of learning to read in a language has been to have access to the literature written in that language. In language instruction, reading materials have traditionally been chosen from literary texts that represent "higher" forms of culture. This approach assumes that students learn to read a language by studying its vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure, not by actually reading it. In this approach, lower level learners read only sentences and paragraphs generated by textbook writers and instructors. The reading of authentic materials is limited to the works of great authors and reserved for upper level students who have developed the language skills needed to read them. The communicative approach to language teaching has given instructors a different understanding of the role of reading in the language classroom and the types of texts that can be used in instruction. When the goal of instruction is communicative competence, everyday materials such as train schedules, newspaper articles, and travel and tourism Web sites become appropriate classroom materials, because reading them is one way communicative competence is developed. Instruction in reading and reading practice thus become essential parts of language teaching at every level. Reading Purpose and Reading Comprehension Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order to gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer's ideas or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read. The purpose(s) for reading guide the reader's selection of texts.
  • 9. UNIT 8 TEACHING WRITING Good writing conveys a meaningful message and uses English well, but the message is more important than correct presentation. If you can understand the message or even part of it, your student has succeeded in communicating on paper and should be praised for that. For many adult ESL learners, writing skills will not be used much outside your class. This doesn't mean that they shouldn't be challenged to write, but you should consider their needs and balance your class time appropriately. Many adults who do not need to write will enjoy it for the purpose of sharing their thoughts and personal stories, and they appreciate a format where they can revise their work into better English than if they shared the same information orally. Two writing strategies you may want to use in your lessons are free writing and revised writing. Free writing directs students to simply get their ideas onto paper without worrying much about grammar, spelling, or other English mechanics. In fact, the teacher can choose not to even look at free writing pieces. To practice free writing, give students 5 minutes in class to write about a certain topic, or ask them to write weekly in a journal. You can try a dialog journal where students write a journal entry and then give the journal to a partner or the teacher, who writes another entry in response. The journals may be exchanged during class, but journal writing usually is done at home. The main characteristic of free writing is that few (if any) errors are corrected by the teacher, which relieves students of the pressure to perform and allows them to express themselves more freely.
  • 10. UNIT 9 TEACHING SPEAKING Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication. Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:  Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation  Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building)  Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason. In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real-life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.
  • 11. UNIT 10 GAME PROJECT Games are considered as an important tool into learning and teaching experience to increase students engagement, motivation and fun. For this project you have to think through the following aspects. -First decide the purpose. ( what are you going to reinforce ) - Consider the language level. - Encourage cooperation. (what are you going to tell ss to motivate them to play) - Check the material and time available for the game. (Describe the material and set the time) -Select the most appropriate game for your students
  • 12. UNIT 11 USING SONGS IN THE CLASSROOM Songs can be exploited in many ways: The Cloze or gap fill. This is the most familiar and popular activity, and for that reason is probably overused. However, there are many important things to bear in mind when using them, and there are many different ways to use them.  Have a point, be it vocabulary or prepositions or whatever.  Don't cloze 3 or more in a row.  For lower levels: give the first letter, miss out word endings, give dashes for letters, or give a glossary.  Give vocabulary clues or synonyms for the missing words.  Get students to work in pairs to predict words before you play the tape.  Insert extra words which students then cross out as they listen.  Change the words, as in "Careful Shouts" or "Countless Whiskies."  Cloze unstressed, then stressed words in the same song, and have students discuss why one is easier than the other.  Cloze several words in a row and Ss have to guess not only form (adj., adv., n., vb, prep.) but words, rhythm and rhyme.
  • 13. UNIT 12 USING TECHNOLOGY • Motivate to learn • More efficient • Share information up-date • Cover topics in more detail • Engages interactive learning • Allows for self-correction • Communication (learning with others) Overview Why use technology “ Traditional” and “new” technologies Various technologies and how they can be used in the language classroom 3. What are some examples of technological tools you could use in the classroom? 4. What can you do with technology in the language classroom? Can be used as: an instructional tool in the classroom a delivery system for learner instruction as instructional content itself 5. “ Traditional” Technology Tools Stereos & televisions Overhead projectors & document cameras Audiotapes & CDs Videotapes & DVDs Cameras & camcorders Telephones 6. Using Movies and TV Shows Creating activities to go along with video Adapting video Using video as something other than a “filler” 7. Why Use Multimedia? Multimedia activities encourage students to work in groups, express their knowledge in multiple ways, solve problems , revise their own work, and construct knowledge Advantages include: Real-world skills related to technology The value of teamwork Effective collaboration techniques The impact and importance of different media The challenges of communicating to different audiences 8. Disadvantages to Multimedia Some constraints in the classroom include: Technological resources, both hardware and software Technological skills, for both the students and teacher Time required to plan, design, develop, and evaluate multimedia activities Sometimes the technology simply doesn’t work!
  • 14. 9. “ New” Technology Tools Computers, data projectors, and the Internet Stand- alone software MP3 players Podcasts iTunes Handhelds & cell phones 10. What is CALL? Computer-assisted Language Learning Technology is NOT a replacement for a live teacher 11. What can we do with CALL? Collaborative projects Peer editing of compositions Email Reinforcement of classroom material Games and simulations Blogging and podcasts WebQuests Authentic language learning opportunities 12. Suggestions for Online Learning We need to consider how learning will be affected by using an online environment 3 suggestions for effective use of the web for online learning: provide access to rich sources of information encourage meaningful interaction with content bring people together to challenge, support, or respond to each other
  • 15. UNIT 13 TEACHING PRONUNCIATION Pronunciation involves far more than individual sounds. Word stress, sentence stress, intonation, and word linking all influence the sound of spoken English, not to mention the way we often slur words and phrases together in casual speech. 'What are you going to do?' becomes 'Whaddaya gonna do?' English pronunciation involves too many complexities for learners to strive for a complete elimination of accent, but improving pronunciation will boost self esteem, facilitate communication, and possibly lead to a better job or a least more respect in the workplace. Effective communication is of greatest importance, so choose first to work on problems that significantly hinder communication and let the rest go. Remember that your students also need to learn strategies for dealing with misunderstandings, since native pronunciation is for most an unrealistic goal. A student's first language often interferes with English pronunciation. For example, /p/ is aspirated in English but not in Spanish, so when a Spanish speaker pronounces 'pig' without a puff of air on the /p/, an American may hear 'big' instead. Sometimes the students will be able to identify specific problem sounds and sometimes they won't. You can ask them for suggestions, but you will also need to observe them over time and make note of problem sounds. Another challenge resulting from differences in the first language is the inability to hear certain English sounds that the native language does not contain. Often these are vowels, as in 'ship' and 'sheep,' which many learners cannot distinguish. The Japanese are known for confusing /r/ and /l/, as their language contains neither of these but instead has one sound somewhere between the two. For problems such as these, listening is crucial because students can't produce a sound they can't hear. Descriptions of the sound and mouth position can help students increase their awareness of subtle sound differences.