METHODS OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
Methods of language teaching include:
1. Grammar translation method
In this method, classes are taught in the students mother tongue, with
little active use of the target language.
Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists.
Elaborate explanation of grammar are always provided.
Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting word together,
instruction focuses on the form and inflection of words.
Little attention is paid to the content of texts.
Drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the
target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa.
Little or no attention is given to prounonciation.
2. Direct approach
This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammar-
translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target
language in instruction.
Lesson begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in
the target language.
Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures.
The mother tongue is NEVER used. There is no translation.
The preferred type of exercise is a series of questions in the target
language based on the dialogue or an anecdotal narrative.
Grammar is taught inductively-rules are generalized from the practice
and experience with the target language.
Literary texts are not analyzed grammatically.
The culture associated with the target language is also taught
3. Reading approach
The approach is mostly for people who do not travel abroad for whom
reading is the one usable skill in a foreign language.
The priority in studying the target language is first, reading ability and
second, current and /or historical knowledge of the country where the
target language s spoken.
Only the grammar necessary for reading comprehension and fluency is
Minimal attention is paid to pronounciation or gaining conversational
skills in the target language.
The vocabulary of the early reading passages and texts is strictly
controlled for difficulty.
Vocabulary is expanded as quickly as possible, since the acquisition of
vocabulary is considered more important that grammatical skill.
4. Audiolingual method
This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology.
It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method,
in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading
New material is presented in the form of a dialogue.
Based on the principle that language learning is habit formation the
method fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases
Little or no grammatical exsplanations are provided, grammar is taught
Skills are sequenced: listening, speaking, reading and writing are
developed in order.
Vocabulary is stricly limited and learned in context.
5. Community language learning (CLL)
This approach is patterned upon counseling techniques and adapted to
the peculiar anxiety and threat as well as the personal and language
problems a person encounters in the learning of foreign language.
The learner is not thought of as a student but as a client.
The instructors are not considered techers but, rather are trained in
counseling skills adapted to their roles as language counselors.
The language-counseling relationship begins with the client’s
linguistic confusion and conflict.
The aim of the language counselor’s skill is first to communicate an
empathy for the client’s threatened inadequate state nd to aid him
This method developed out of believe that human brain could process
great quantities of material given the right conditions of learning like
Music was central to this method.
Soft music led to increase in alpha brain wave and a decrease in blood
pressure and pulse rate resulting in high intake of large quantities of
Learners were encouraged to be as “childlike” as possible.
Apart from soft, comfortable seats in a relaxed setting. Everything else
remained the same.
7. The natural approach
This method emphasized development of basic personal communicatin
Delay production until speech emerge i.e learners don’t say anything
until they are ready to do so.
Learners should be as relaxed a possible.
Advocate use of TPR at beginning level
Comprehensible input is essential for acquisition to take place.
8. The silent way
This method begins by using a set of colored wooden rods and verbal
commands in order to achieve the following.
a. To avoid the use of the vernacular.
b. To create simple linguistic situation that remain under the complete
control of the teacher.
c. To pass on the to learners the responsibility for the utterances of the
descriptions of the objects shown or the actions performed.
d. To let the teacher concentrate on what the students say and how they
are saying it, drawing their attention to the differences in
prounonciation and the flow of words.
9. Total physical response (TPR)
Total physical response (TPR) method as one that combines
information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system.
This combination of skills allow s the student to assimilate information
and skills at a rapid rate.
Understanding the spoken language before developing the skills of
Imperatives are the main structures to transfer or communicate
The student is not forced to speak, but is allowed an individual
readiness period and allowed to spontaneously begins to speak when
the he feels comfortable and confident in understanding and producing
10. Communicative language teaching
The method stresses a means of organizing a language syllabus. The
emphasis is on breaking down the global concept of language into
units of analysis in terms of communicative situations in which they
There is negotiation of meaning.
A variety of language skillls are involved.
Material is presented in context.
It pays attention to registers and styles in terms of situattion and
Fluency and accuracy (different competencies)
Form and functions
Development of autonomous learners
11. Whole language
The whole language approach emphasizes learning to read and write
naturally with a focus on real communication and reading and writing
Teacher is seen as a facilitator and active participant in the learning
community rather than an expert passing on knowledge.
The learners is a collaborator, collaborating with fellows students, with
the teacher and with writers of texts.
12. Collaborative learning method
Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn
or attempt to learn something together. Findley (1987)
Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and
learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a
problem, complete a task, or create a product.
It has many benefits, that is develops higher level thinking skills and
increase student retention.
13. Problem base learning (PBL)
PBL is an instructional methods which focuses on the imvestigation
and resolution of messy, ‘real word’ problems as a context for students
to learn critical thinking and problem solving skills.
Decide on goals and objectives.
Self-motivated approach to learning
14. Content base instruction
CBI is a significant approach in language education.
Learning activities based on the content, rather than on aspect of
In CBI information is reiterated by strategically delivering information
at right time and situation compelling the students to learn out of
15. The portfolio
Portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that demonstrates
to student and others their efforts, progress, and achievement in given
A textbook or course book is a collection of the knowledge, concepts,
and principles of a selected topic or course.
They provide structure and syllabus for a program.
They may not select student’s needs.
16. Cooperative learning
Cooperative is working together to accomplish shared goals.
The teacher must prepare lessons carefully, besides that it requires
more energy, thought and time.
17. Neuro-linguistic progamming method
NLP is an approach to communication, personal development, and
psychoterapy created by Richard Bandler and John grinder in
California United States in the 1970s.
The view that a person is a whole mind body system with patterned
connections between internal experience (Neuro), language (linguistic)
and behaviour (progamming)
The teacher-leraner relationship is a cybernetic loop.
18. Learning strategy training
Learning strategy is the spesific actions to make the students better in
learning a second language.
The teacher’s job is not only to teach language, but to teach learning.
Groups means that two or more people who interact with eachother to
accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.
Large group instruction is one of the commonest methods used at
college or university.
19. Lexical approach
Focuses on developing learner proficiency with lexis: words, word
combinations and particularly formulaic sequences.
Collocation iss refer to the regular occurrence together of words.
Teacher as a major source of learner input and as the environment
creator in the classroom.
Listening and reading intensively and extensively.
20. Task-based learning
TBL is TBL. The task here is defined as a work created in such a way
by the teacher to be done by the student and the student must complete
the task using the resource language to communicate.
More emphasis on meaning rather than linguistic form.
Basically all language skills can be developed by a task-based learning.
21. Participatory approach
Is the brainchild of language educator paulo freire.
Participatory approach is a teaching strategy that incorporates themes
or content area that are of interest to the learners.
The goals to use the language learning as a tool to provide the solution
to social problems.
22. Multiple intelligence
23. Competency based language teaching (CBLT)
CBLT is an application of the principles of competency-based
education (CBE) to language teaching.
Language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning.
CBLT is built around the notion of communicative competence.
Teacher corrects the students immediately and give positive feedback
Peer teaching is technique submit the items teach through friend star
from items solution until assesment is also done from and by student in
it self group.
24. Blanded learning
Blanded learning is combination of different training media:
technologies, activities, and type od event to creat an optimum training
program for a specific audience.
Characteristic of blanded learning are th combination of the learning
model, learning methods and the combination of online learning with
face to face learning.
Learning can be done anytime and anywhere.
25. Comunicative language teaching (CLT)
CLT is a theory of language teaching that starts from a communicative
model of language and language use and that seek to translate into a
design for an instructional system, for material, teacher, learner, and
for classroom activities.
The goal are to make communicative competence and to develop
produce of the four language skill and communication.
The role playing is applicable to communicative language teaching,
with role playing student can increase their abilities communication.
The goal are give simulation to learner, that teaching English is fun
teaching, to motivating themselves that they are have chance to
increase their ability in group.