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  1. 1. SUMMARY METHODS OF LANGUAGE TEACHING Methods of language teaching include: 1. Grammar translation method  In this method, classes are taught in the students mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.  Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists.  Elaborate explanation of grammar are always provided.  Grammar instruction provides the rules for putting word together, instruction focuses on the form and inflection of words.  Little attention is paid to the content of texts.  Drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue, and vice versa.  Little or no attention is given to prounonciation. 2. Direct approach  This approach was developed initially as a reaction to the grammar- translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction.  Lesson begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language.  Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures.  The mother tongue is NEVER used. There is no translation.  The preferred type of exercise is a series of questions in the target language based on the dialogue or an anecdotal narrative.  Grammar is taught inductively-rules are generalized from the practice and experience with the target language.  Literary texts are not analyzed grammatically.
  2. 2.  The culture associated with the target language is also taught inductively. 3. Reading approach  The approach is mostly for people who do not travel abroad for whom reading is the one usable skill in a foreign language.  The priority in studying the target language is first, reading ability and second, current and /or historical knowledge of the country where the target language s spoken.  Only the grammar necessary for reading comprehension and fluency is taught.  Minimal attention is paid to pronounciation or gaining conversational skills in the target language.  The vocabulary of the early reading passages and texts is strictly controlled for difficulty.  Vocabulary is expanded as quickly as possible, since the acquisition of vocabulary is considered more important that grammatical skill. 4. Audiolingual method  This method is based on the principles of behavior psychology.  It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method, in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach.  New material is presented in the form of a dialogue.  Based on the principle that language learning is habit formation the method fosters dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-learning.  Little or no grammatical exsplanations are provided, grammar is taught inductively.
  3. 3.  Skills are sequenced: listening, speaking, reading and writing are developed in order.  Vocabulary is stricly limited and learned in context. 5. Community language learning (CLL)  This approach is patterned upon counseling techniques and adapted to the peculiar anxiety and threat as well as the personal and language problems a person encounters in the learning of foreign language.  The learner is not thought of as a student but as a client.  The instructors are not considered techers but, rather are trained in counseling skills adapted to their roles as language counselors.  The language-counseling relationship begins with the client’s linguistic confusion and conflict.  The aim of the language counselor’s skill is first to communicate an empathy for the client’s threatened inadequate state nd to aid him linguistically. 6. Suggestopedia  This method developed out of believe that human brain could process great quantities of material given the right conditions of learning like relaxation.  Music was central to this method.  Soft music led to increase in alpha brain wave and a decrease in blood pressure and pulse rate resulting in high intake of large quantities of materials.  Learners were encouraged to be as “childlike” as possible.  Apart from soft, comfortable seats in a relaxed setting. Everything else remained the same.
  4. 4. 7. The natural approach  This method emphasized development of basic personal communicatin skills.  Delay production until speech emerge i.e learners don’t say anything until they are ready to do so.  Learners should be as relaxed a possible.  Advocate use of TPR at beginning level  Comprehensible input is essential for acquisition to take place. 8. The silent way  This method begins by using a set of colored wooden rods and verbal commands in order to achieve the following. a. To avoid the use of the vernacular. b. To create simple linguistic situation that remain under the complete control of the teacher. c. To pass on the to learners the responsibility for the utterances of the descriptions of the objects shown or the actions performed. d. To let the teacher concentrate on what the students say and how they are saying it, drawing their attention to the differences in prounonciation and the flow of words. 9. Total physical response (TPR) Total physical response (TPR) method as one that combines information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system.  This combination of skills allow s the student to assimilate information and skills at a rapid rate.  Understanding the spoken language before developing the skills of speaking.  Imperatives are the main structures to transfer or communicate information.
  5. 5.  The student is not forced to speak, but is allowed an individual readiness period and allowed to spontaneously begins to speak when the he feels comfortable and confident in understanding and producing the utterances. 10. Communicative language teaching  The method stresses a means of organizing a language syllabus. The emphasis is on breaking down the global concept of language into units of analysis in terms of communicative situations in which they are used.  There is negotiation of meaning.  A variety of language skillls are involved.  Material is presented in context.  It pays attention to registers and styles in terms of situattion and participants.  Fluency and accuracy (different competencies)  Form and functions  Development of autonomous learners 11. Whole language  The whole language approach emphasizes learning to read and write naturally with a focus on real communication and reading and writing for pleasure.  Teacher is seen as a facilitator and active participant in the learning community rather than an expert passing on knowledge.  The learners is a collaborator, collaborating with fellows students, with the teacher and with writers of texts.
  6. 6. 12. Collaborative learning method  Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Findley (1987)  Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching and learning that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem, complete a task, or create a product.  It has many benefits, that is develops higher level thinking skills and increase student retention. 13. Problem base learning (PBL)  PBL is an instructional methods which focuses on the imvestigation and resolution of messy, ‘real word’ problems as a context for students to learn critical thinking and problem solving skills.  Decide on goals and objectives.  Self-motivated approach to learning 14. Content base instruction  CBI is a significant approach in language education.  Learning activities based on the content, rather than on aspect of language.  In CBI information is reiterated by strategically delivering information at right time and situation compelling the students to learn out of passion. 15. The portfolio  Portfolio is a purposeful collection of student work that demonstrates to student and others their efforts, progress, and achievement in given areas.
  7. 7.  A textbook or course book is a collection of the knowledge, concepts, and principles of a selected topic or course.  They provide structure and syllabus for a program.  They may not select student’s needs. 16. Cooperative learning  Cooperative is working together to accomplish shared goals.  The teacher must prepare lessons carefully, besides that it requires more energy, thought and time. 17. Neuro-linguistic progamming method  NLP is an approach to communication, personal development, and psychoterapy created by Richard Bandler and John grinder in California United States in the 1970s.  The view that a person is a whole mind body system with patterned connections between internal experience (Neuro), language (linguistic) and behaviour (progamming)  The teacher-leraner relationship is a cybernetic loop. 18. Learning strategy training  Learning strategy is the spesific actions to make the students better in learning a second language.  The teacher’s job is not only to teach language, but to teach learning.  Groups means that two or more people who interact with eachother to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.  Large group instruction is one of the commonest methods used at college or university.
  8. 8. 19. Lexical approach  Focuses on developing learner proficiency with lexis: words, word combinations and particularly formulaic sequences.  Collocation iss refer to the regular occurrence together of words.  Teacher as a major source of learner input and as the environment creator in the classroom.  Listening and reading intensively and extensively. 20. Task-based learning  TBL is TBL. The task here is defined as a work created in such a way by the teacher to be done by the student and the student must complete the task using the resource language to communicate.  More emphasis on meaning rather than linguistic form.  Basically all language skills can be developed by a task-based learning. 21. Participatory approach  Is the brainchild of language educator paulo freire.  Participatory approach is a teaching strategy that incorporates themes or content area that are of interest to the learners.  The goals to use the language learning as a tool to provide the solution to social problems. 22. Multiple intelligence  Verbal-linguistic intelligence  Mathematical-logical intelligence  Musical intelligence  Visual-spatial intelligence  Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence  Interpersonal intelligence  Intrapersonal intelligence
  9. 9.  Naturalist intelligence 23. Competency based language teaching (CBLT)  CBLT is an application of the principles of competency-based education (CBE) to language teaching.  Language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning.  CBLT is built around the notion of communicative competence.  Teacher corrects the students immediately and give positive feedback  Peer teaching is technique submit the items teach through friend star from items solution until assesment is also done from and by student in it self group. 24. Blanded learning  Blanded learning is combination of different training media: technologies, activities, and type od event to creat an optimum training program for a specific audience.  Characteristic of blanded learning are th combination of the learning model, learning methods and the combination of online learning with face to face learning.  Learning can be done anytime and anywhere. 25. Comunicative language teaching (CLT)  CLT is a theory of language teaching that starts from a communicative model of language and language use and that seek to translate into a design for an instructional system, for material, teacher, learner, and for classroom activities.  The goal are to make communicative competence and to develop produce of the four language skill and communication.  The role playing is applicable to communicative language teaching, with role playing student can increase their abilities communication.
  10. 10. The goal are give simulation to learner, that teaching English is fun teaching, to motivating themselves that they are have chance to increase their ability in group.