World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd  Ed,) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox,  & Diana M...
Middle East & North Africa <ul><li>The Cradle of Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Birthplace of Major Religions </li></ul><u...
Southwest Asia and North Africa Figure 7.1
“ The Dry Land” <ul><li>Popular Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahara Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabian Desert <...
Regional Landscapes Atlas Mountains Arid Iran Turkey Earthquake Damage  in Turkey
Mountains & Coasts <ul><li>Tectonically Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountain Building ...
Riverine Landscapes <ul><li>The Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue and White </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tigris and Euphrates </li...
Climate <ul><li>Dominated by Arid and Semi-Arid Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Midlatitude Climate (Mediterranean Climate) </li...
Climate
Environmental History <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overexploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation <...
Environmental Issues – Overview <ul><li>Fragile Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing ...
Hydropolitics <ul><li>Connections between water resources and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for conflict </li></ul>
Agricultural Regions Figure 7.16
Dryland Agriculture < Saudi  Arabian Irrigation Nile Valley >
Early Empires <ul><li>The Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urak and Ur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nile Valley </...
Religious Hearths <ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity – diffused – Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Islam – Ottoman E...
Diffusion of Islam Makkah
Linguistic Diversity Reveals ethnic  complexities
Plant & Animal Domestication <ul><li>Transition  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9000 – 7000 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hu...
Early Cities <ul><li>Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4500 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walled towns </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Settlement Patterns – Urban <ul><li>Rich history of urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Political and religious centers </li></...
Urban Growth in Cairo
Urban Influences Traditional Islamic  and European Influences Algiers, Algeria Fes, Morocco
Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Turkish Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital - Istanbul </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Colonialism & Independence <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul...
Population <ul><li>Environmental Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 350 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Populatio...
Population and  Settlement Importance of Water (Rivers, Coasts, Oases)
Demographic  Diversity
Religion <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>96% of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qur’an </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Other Religions <ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many sects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Jerusalem  <ul><li>How might Jerusalem represent a microcosm of religious influence for the region as a whole? </li></ul>
Culture & Society <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Organization </li></ul><ul><u...
Cultural Coherence and Diversity <ul><li>Monotheistic Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
Migration <ul><li>Pull Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guest workers  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
The Diaspora <ul><li>Distribution of Middle Eastern Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuisine: meze dishes, falafel, tabouleh ...
Cities <ul><li>Rapid Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% - Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Contemporary Issues <ul><li>Tensions and Conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran, Iraq and Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Kurdistan Kirkuk
Geopolitical  Framework
Regional Conflicts <ul><li>Israeli – Palestinian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Partitioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zio...
Israel & Palestine
Israel & Palestine <ul><li>Territorial Expansion of Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refu...
Challenge of the West Bank Figure 7.33 Figure 7.5.1
Jewish Settlements and the Barrier
U.S. War in Iraq <ul><li>March 19, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. and Britain Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.N. did ...
Conflicts <ul><li>Genocide in Darfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Sudan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>450,000 dead </li></ul...
Regional Alliances <ul><li>1945: The Arab League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen ties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordina...
Economic Development <ul><li>Extreme Contrasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth and poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil – N...
Core Regions <ul><li>Oil States </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul>
Oil States <ul><li>Majority of World’s Oil Reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq </l...
Oil States <ul><li>Riyadh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabian capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5 million </li></ul></u...
Economic Development Figure 7.36
Economic Development (cont’d) Figure 7.36
With and Without Oil … Rural Yemen Saudi Arabian Refineries Persian Gulf
The Eastern Mediterranean Crescent <ul><li>Egypt, Turkey, and Lebanon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculturally based </li></ul...
The Eastern Mediterranean Crescent <ul><li>Cairo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memphis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4000 BC </li></u...
Economic Differentiation
Economic Differentiation … Dubai
Social Development and Gender Algerian Women (above) and  Iranian Consumers (right)
End of Chapter 4: Middle East & North Africa World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd  Ed....
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Chapter 4

  1. 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed,) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 4: Middle East & North Africa Robert M. Arthur
  2. 2. Middle East & North Africa <ul><li>The Cradle of Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Birthplace of Major Religions </li></ul><ul><li>Crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Oil and Conflict </li></ul>
  3. 3. Southwest Asia and North Africa Figure 7.1
  4. 4. “ The Dry Land” <ul><li>Popular Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahara Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabian Desert </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Regional Landscapes Atlas Mountains Arid Iran Turkey Earthquake Damage in Turkey
  6. 6. Mountains & Coasts <ul><li>Tectonically Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountain Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taurus and Anti-Taurus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elburz and Zagros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlas Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Yemen Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population Density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal regions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Riverine Landscapes <ul><li>The Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue and White </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tigris and Euphrates </li></ul><ul><li>Oasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qanat irrigation </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Climate <ul><li>Dominated by Arid and Semi-Arid Regions </li></ul><ul><li>Midlatitude Climate (Mediterranean Climate) </li></ul><ul><li>Highland Climates (Effects of Mountains) </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Climate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Climate
  10. 10. Environmental History <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overexploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water shortage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Environmental Issues – Overview <ul><li>Fragile Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Overgrazing </li></ul><ul><li>Salinization </li></ul><ul><li>Water Management </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hydropolitics <ul><li>Connections between water resources and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for conflict </li></ul>
  13. 13. Agricultural Regions Figure 7.16
  14. 14. Dryland Agriculture < Saudi Arabian Irrigation Nile Valley >
  15. 15. Early Empires <ul><li>The Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urak and Ur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Nile Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestication of wheat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Religious Hearths <ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity – diffused – Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Islam – Ottoman Empire </li></ul>
  17. 17. Diffusion of Islam Makkah
  18. 18. Linguistic Diversity Reveals ethnic complexities
  19. 19. Plant & Animal Domestication <ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9000 – 7000 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunter-Gatherer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population density </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labor specialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Early Cities <ul><li>Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4500 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walled towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God-kings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramids </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Settlement Patterns – Urban <ul><li>Rich history of urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Political and religious centers </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic influences </li></ul>< Qom, Iran Doha, Qatar >
  22. 22. Urban Growth in Cairo
  23. 23. Urban Influences Traditional Islamic and European Influences Algiers, Algeria Fes, Morocco
  24. 24. Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Turkish Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital - Istanbul </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>600 year rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalist movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated during WW I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire carved and turned into “mandates” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered by European powers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Colonialism & Independence <ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balfour declaration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aden </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libya </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Algeria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Import-substitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic nationalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilization and structural-adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered standard of living </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal economy </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Population <ul><li>Environmental Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 350 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Populations </li></ul>
  27. 27. Population and Settlement Importance of Water (Rivers, Coasts, Oases)
  28. 28. Demographic Diversity
  29. 29. Religion <ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>96% of the population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qur’an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Five Pillars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Hajj </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammad (PBUH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mecca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi’I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jihad (misused) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Other Religions <ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many sects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthodox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hasidic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bahaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoroastrianism </li></ul></ul>The Church of Bethabara, Jordan believed to be where Jesus was baptized
  31. 31. Jerusalem <ul><li>How might Jerusalem represent a microcosm of religious influence for the region as a whole? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Culture & Society <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective loyalty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoralism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transhumance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private space – female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Space – male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chador </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Cultural Coherence and Diversity <ul><li>Monotheistic Religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judaism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Migration <ul><li>Pull Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guest workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews returning to Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Push Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil unrest </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. The Diaspora <ul><li>Distribution of Middle Eastern Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cuisine: meze dishes, falafel, tabouleh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belly dancing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide spread of Mosques </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Cities <ul><li>Rapid Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% - Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% - Sudan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatter settlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowding </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Contemporary Issues <ul><li>Tensions and Conflicts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran, Iraq and Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persians (Iran) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabs (Iraq) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kurds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 million </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nation without a territory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Kurdistan Kirkuk
  39. 39. Geopolitical Framework
  40. 40. Regional Conflicts <ul><li>Israeli – Palestinian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Partitioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1948 – UN Mandate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>56% to Israel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>43% to Palestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jerusalem International City </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: 1 st Arab-Israeli War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel declares Jerusalem its capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1967: Six Day War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel occupies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Sinai </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Golan Heights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The West Bank </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1988 Sinai returned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israeli Settlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intifada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PLO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hamas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Israel & Palestine
  42. 42. Israel & Palestine <ul><li>Territorial Expansion of Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intifada and PLO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hezbollah and Lebanon </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Challenge of the West Bank Figure 7.33 Figure 7.5.1
  44. 44. Jewish Settlements and the Barrier
  45. 45. U.S. War in Iraq <ul><li>March 19, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. and Britain Attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.N. did not support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many allies did not support the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Weapons of Mass Destruction” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ War on Terrorism” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sectarian violence </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Conflicts <ul><li>Genocide in Darfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Sudan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>450,000 dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 million displaced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Sahara </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish colony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morrocan state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polisario front </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Regional Alliances <ul><li>1945: The Arab League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen ties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic, cultural and social programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960: OPEC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil cartel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 non-Arab states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Economic Development <ul><li>Extreme Contrasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth and poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil – Non-oil states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban – Rural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Core Regions <ul><li>Oil States </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Mediterranean </li></ul>
  50. 50. Oil States <ul><li>Majority of World’s Oil Reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iraq </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kuwait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.A.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Petrodollars </li></ul>
  51. 51. Oil States <ul><li>Riyadh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabian capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suq </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Camel market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tehran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iranian capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water shortages </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Economic Development Figure 7.36
  53. 53. Economic Development (cont’d) Figure 7.36
  54. 54. With and Without Oil … Rural Yemen Saudi Arabian Refineries Persian Gulf
  55. 55. The Eastern Mediterranean Crescent <ul><li>Egypt, Turkey, and Lebanon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculturally based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and high tech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All endowed with resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European orientation </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. The Eastern Mediterranean Crescent <ul><li>Cairo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memphis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4000 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metro Cairo – 16 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital, Industrial and financial center of Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ City of the Dead” </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Economic Differentiation
  58. 58. Economic Differentiation … Dubai
  59. 59. Social Development and Gender Algerian Women (above) and Iranian Consumers (right)
  60. 60. End of Chapter 4: Middle East & North Africa World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd Ed.) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman

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