Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
Human Geography Chapter 5 Language and Religion: Mosaics of Culture
The Classification of Languages <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Language Families </li></ul><ul><li>Subfamilies, branch...
World Pattern of Languages <ul><li>Language Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different forms of diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Language Change <ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual and cumulative changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the...
Standard and Variant Languages <ul><li>Standard Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came from the dialect of the most powerful ...
Human Geography  10e
Language, Territoriality, and Identity <ul><li>Recognition and Autonomy </li></ul>Human Geography  11e Insert figure 5.15 ...
Language on the Landscape: Toponymy <ul><li>Toponyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place names </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toponymy </l...
Classification of Religion <ul><li>Impact on Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mo...
Patterns and Flows <ul><li>The World Pattern </li></ul>Human Geography  11e
Patterns and Flows <ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Insert figure 5.20 </li></ul>Human Geography  11e
The Principal Religions <ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions and landscapes of Chr...
Judaism <ul><li>Ethnic religion </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East origins </li></ul><ul><li>Diaspora </li></ul><ul><li>Two sep...
Christianity <ul><li>Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East origins </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Islam <ul><li>Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East origin </li></ul><ul><li>Holy book: Koran </li></ul><ul><li>Fiv...
Islam Human Geography  11e © Photodisc/Getty RF
Hinduism <ul><li>World’s oldest major religion </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic religion </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia origins </li...
Buddhism <ul><li>Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia Origins </li></ul><ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha </li...
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Fellmann11e ch5

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Fellmann11e ch5

  1. 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  2. 2. Human Geography Chapter 5 Language and Religion: Mosaics of Culture
  3. 3. The Classification of Languages <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Language Families </li></ul><ul><li>Subfamilies, branches, or groups </li></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Protolanguage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestral tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification of languages by origin and historical relationship </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. World Pattern of Languages <ul><li>Language Spread </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different forms of diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture is transported </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With partial or total acculturation of the adopting population </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  5. 5. Language Change <ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual and cumulative changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the 18 th century, the English language gained thousands of words from the Latin, Greek, and French languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After the discovery and colonization of new lands, aboriginal American, Australian, and African names were adopted </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  6. 6. Standard and Variant Languages <ul><li>Standard Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came from the dialect of the most powerful and prestigious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social dialects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernacular language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic or regional dialects </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Linguistic geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Isogloss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pidgins and Creoles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amalgam of languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lingua Franca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language of trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Official Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The required language of instruction, government and public activities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Human Geography 10e
  8. 8. Language, Territoriality, and Identity <ul><li>Recognition and Autonomy </li></ul>Human Geography 11e Insert figure 5.15 Photo by Mark Bjellend
  9. 9. Language on the Landscape: Toponymy <ul><li>Toponyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place names </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toponymy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The study of place names </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  10. 10. Classification of Religion <ul><li>Impact on Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotheism and Polytheism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classification based on religion’s distribution and patterns and processes of diffusion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universalizing Religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic Religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal or Traditional Religions </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e
  11. 11. Patterns and Flows <ul><li>The World Pattern </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  12. 12. Patterns and Flows <ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Insert figure 5.20 </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  13. 13. The Principal Religions <ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions and landscapes of Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>East Asian Ethnic Religions </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  14. 14. Judaism <ul><li>Ethnic religion </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East origins </li></ul><ul><li>Diaspora </li></ul><ul><li>Two separate branches of Judaism developed in Europe during the Middle Ages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sephardim (Iberian Peninsula) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ashkenazim (Eastern Europe) </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Zionism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief in the need to create an autonomous Jewish state in Palestine </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Christianity <ul><li>Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East origins </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From provincial capitals to smaller settlements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contagious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation </li></ul></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>European Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Schism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided Medieval Christendom into Eastern (Greek) and Western (Roman) branches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Landscapes of Christianity </li></ul>© Corbis RF
  16. 16. Islam <ul><li>Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East origin </li></ul><ul><li>Holy book: Koran </li></ul><ul><li>Five pillars </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Sunni & Shi’ite Sects </li></ul>Human Geography 11e <ul><li>Five Pillars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profession of faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving of alms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Islam Human Geography 11e © Photodisc/Getty RF
  18. 18. Hinduism <ul><li>World’s oldest major religion </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic religion </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia origins </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Caste </li></ul><ul><li>Reincarnation </li></ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul>Human Geography 11e
  19. 19. Buddhism <ul><li>Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia Origins </li></ul><ul><li>Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Sects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theravada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mahayana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vajrayana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul>Human Geography 11e

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