North Africa


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Information about the following countries: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco.

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North Africa

  1. 1. North Africa
  2. 2. North Africa
  3. 3. Gift of the Nile Egypt
  4. 4. Egyptian Flag
  5. 5. The Economy Hydroelectric Power (electricity from moving water), Food products, textiles, consumer goods (household goods, clothing, and shoes that people buy); and Tourism Industries Cotton (leading export), dates, vegetables, sugarcane, wheat Agriculture Oil – Major Export Natural Resources
  6. 6. The Land <ul><li>There are 3 Land Areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Nile River Valley – </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies 85% of Egypt’s water </li></ul><ul><li>Rich soil formed by silt </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai Peninsula – </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast of the Nile Delta (triangle-shaped area of land at a river’s mouth) </li></ul><ul><li>Actually part of Southwest Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Suez Canal – Human-made waterway </li></ul><ul><li> separating it from the rest of Egypt It supplies a pass between the Mediterranean and Red Seas. </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts – </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Egypt is desert – Libyan Desert is 2/3 of land east of the Nile and the Arabian Desert is west of the Red Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>These deserts are a part of the Sahara Desert . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aswan High Dam <ul><li>Until the 1960s farmers could plant only once a year-after the Nile River floods. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1968 the dam was constructed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It holds back the Nile’s floodwaters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can now plant 2-3 times a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It stops rich silt (particles of earth deposited by the river) flow that fertilized the fields. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now they rely on artificial fertilizers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dam restricts the flow of water into the river valley and the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salty seawater now moves farther inland to the delta. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The People <ul><li>Most live within 20 miles of the Nile River. </li></ul><ul><li>99% live on 3.5% of the land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile River Valley is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>55% live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Fellahins are rural farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>They live in villages and work on small plots of rented land to feed their families. </li></ul><ul><li>Leftover food is sold in towns at a bazaar , or marketplace. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Skilled and unskilled workers make up the largest group of Egyptians. </li></ul><ul><li>They live in the cities. </li></ul><ul><li>About 11 million people live in Cairo , Egypt’s national capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Leading center of the Muslim World – mosques, schools, and universities </li></ul><ul><li>Cairo’s population is increasing because of the high birthrate, and fellahins moving from rural areas to find work. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Influences of the Past <ul><li>Egypt was one of the ancient world’s most advanced civilizations that developed along the Nile River. </li></ul><ul><li>They used hieroglyphs (or picture symbols) for writing. </li></ul><ul><li>They were one of the first to make paper from reedlike papyrus plant, created a calendar, and built lasting monuments such as the Great Sphinx and the Pyramids. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In later centuries, Egypt was ruled by outsiders: Romans, Persians, Arabs, Turks, and the British. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Arab rule: Islam (its followers are called Muslims) and the Arab language came to Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Islam and Arabic have been an important part of Egyptian life ever since. </li></ul><ul><li>Today almost 90% of Egyptians are Muslims and 10% are Christians. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Government <ul><li>Egypt became a republic in 1953. </li></ul><ul><li>Gamel Abdel Nasser was president from 1954-1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Nasser, Egypt became the most powerful country in the Arab world. </li></ul><ul><li>Nasser, supported by other Arab countries, opposed Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>He angered many Europeans by taking control of the Suez Canal, which was vital to European trade. </li></ul><ul><li>To regain control of the canal, Britain, France, and Israel invaded Egypt in 1956. </li></ul><ul><li>The United Nations persuaded the Europeans and Israelis to withdraw their troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions between the countries remained. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1970s Egypt and Israel decided to settle their differences. </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years, Egypt has also strengthened its ties with the United States. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Libya
  14. 14. Libyan Flag
  15. 15. The Land <ul><li>Libya is about 1/5 the size of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 90% of the country is desert. </li></ul><ul><li>The highest temperature ever measured 136 °F, was in the Libyan Desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Libya is one of the driest countries in the world. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Economy <ul><li>Libya is the richest country in North Africa, even though its land is too dry for farming. </li></ul><ul><li>It earns its income from oil exports. </li></ul><ul><li>The government uses its profits from oil to improve farming and to build new schools, houses, and hospitals. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The People <ul><li>The 5 million people are of mixed Arab and Berber ancestry. </li></ul><ul><li>The Berbers were the first people known to live in North Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>During the A.D. 600s, the Arabs brought Islam and the Arabic language to North Africa, including Libya. </li></ul><ul><li>70% of the people live along the Mediterranean coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Most live in Tripoli , the capital, and Benghazi. </li></ul><ul><li>For centuries, Libya was a part of either Muslim or European empires. </li></ul><ul><li>It became independent in 1951 under a monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969 a military officer named Muammar al-Qaddhafi came to power. </li></ul><ul><li>He set up a dictatorship , (a government under the control of one all-powerful leader). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tunisia
  19. 19. Tunisian Flag
  20. 20. The Land <ul><li>Tunisia is part of a three North African country region known as the Maghreb (Meaning “the West” in Arabic). </li></ul><ul><li>Its about the size of Missouri, and North Africa’s smallest country. </li></ul><ul><li>Tunisia includes large areas of the Sahara Desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Two branches of the Atlas Mountain range sweep into northern Tunisia. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Economy <ul><li>Tunisia depends on mining and agriculture for its income. </li></ul><ul><li>It exports phosphates and oil. </li></ul><ul><li>They farm wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most farms are located along the fertile east coast. </li></ul><ul><li>The coastal area has a mild Mediterranean climate that favors the growing of crops. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The People <ul><li>Almost all of the 9 million people are of Arab and Berber ancestry and speak Arabic. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Tunisians live in the northern and eastern areas of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>About 60% of the people live in urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Tunis is the capital and largest city. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>In ancient times the city of Carthage arose in the area that is now Tunisia. </li></ul><ul><li>Carthage fought unsuccessfully with Rome for control of the Mediterranean world. </li></ul><ul><li>In modern times France ruled Tunisia as a colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Tunisia became independent in 1956, French influences can still be seen. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Algeria
  25. 25. Algerian Flag
  26. 26. The Land <ul><li>Algeria is part of the Maghreb (the West) region. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the largest country in the region of Southwest Asia and North Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s more than 3 times bigger than Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>The land varies from plains to mountains to deserts. </li></ul><ul><li>Along the Mediterranean coast is a narrow strip of land know as the Tell (Arabic for hill). </li></ul><ul><li>The hills and plains of the Tell contains Algeria’s best farmland. </li></ul><ul><li>Algeria has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters which help grow crops. </li></ul><ul><li>South of the Tell are the Atlas Mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>In southern Algeria lies the Ahagger Mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>Between the Atlas and Ahagger Mountains are parts of the Sahara known as the ergs (huge areas of shifting sand dunes). </li></ul><ul><li>In most parts of Algeria, South of the Tell, the climate has a hot, dry climate. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Economy <ul><li>Agriculture, manufacturing, and mining are the basis of Algeria’s developing economy. </li></ul><ul><li>It has large deposits of natural gas and petroleum. </li></ul><ul><li>These make up 30% of the country’s income. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The People <ul><li>About 20 million people live in Algeria. </li></ul><ul><li>Algeria also has a population of mixed Arab and Berber ancestry. </li></ul><ul><li>Most practice Islam and speak Arabic. </li></ul><ul><li>People in the countryside raise livestock or farm small pieces of land. </li></ul><ul><li>Algiers is the capital and largest city. </li></ul><ul><li>Old areas in Algiers are called casbahs . </li></ul><ul><li>Shops, mosques, bazaars, and homes line the narrow streets. </li></ul><ul><li>Algeria came under French rule in the 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>The Algerians never accepted French control of their country. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1962 Algeria became an independent republic. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Morocco
  30. 30. Moroccan Flag
  31. 31. The Land <ul><li>Morocco is located in the northwestern corner of Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Its long seacoast is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the north and the Atlantic Ocean on the west. </li></ul><ul><li>The northern tip of Morocco meets the Strait of Gilbraltar. </li></ul><ul><li>A fertile coastal plain borders the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>This area has a Mediterranean climate of hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. </li></ul><ul><li>Farther inland rise the Atlas Mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sahara Desert lies east and south of the Atlas Mountains. </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Economy Fishing and Tourism (Leading service industry) Industries Citrus fruits, potatoes, olives, sugar beets, and wheat Agriculture Phosphates (world leader), iron ore, lead, and natural gas Natural Resources
  33. 33. The People <ul><li>Population of about 29 million </li></ul><ul><li>Most are Muslims of mixed Arab and Berber ancestry. </li></ul><ul><li>About half of the population live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Some live in villages and farm the land, others are herders in desert areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the population live in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Rabat is Morocco’s national capital. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest city and port is Casablanca. </li></ul><ul><li>Both are located on the Atlantic coast. </li></ul><ul><li>Moroccan cities face the challenge of rapidly growing populations. </li></ul>
  34. 34. History <ul><li>From A.D.1000s to the early 1900s, Morocco was a Muslim kingdom that ruled much of Northwestern Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>France and Spain gained control of Morocco’s affairs at the beginning of the 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1956, Morocco became an independent kingdom again. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, the Moroccan government laid claim to Western Sahara, a large stretch of African territory south of Morocco. </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries do not recognize this claim. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Resources <ul><li>Geography: The World & Its People , </li></ul><ul><li>pages 446-459 </li></ul>