Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chloroplast

30,356 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Chloroplast

  1. 1. CHLOROPLASTTHE HOUSE OF PLANTPHOTOSYNTHETIC MACHINERYPresented by-Mondalica ChalihaMSc Biotech
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION→ The term Chloroplast was first describedby Nehemiah Grew and AntonieVan Leeuwenhoek.→ “Chloro” means green while“ Plast” means living.→ Chlorophyll pigments presentin the chloroplast imparts thegreen colour to plants.→ Chloroplasts are present in plantsand other eukaryotic organisms that conducts photosynthesis.
  3. 3. =ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION
  4. 4. BIOGENESIS OF CHLOROPLAST
  5. 5. STRUCTURE OF CHLOROPLAST→ They are planoconvexlens- like structuresabout 5µm diameterand 2 to 3 µm thick.→ The chloroplast comprise. A double layeredEnvelope. A granular stromaor matrix. A lamellar system. The Osmophilic globules called Plastoglobuli. Chloroplast DNA
  6. 6. THEENVELOPE→ It is composed of a system of double membranes ,eachof which is 50- 80 Å thick and has a unit membranestructure.→ The outer membrane is separated from the inner mem--brane by an intermembrane space of about 10nm.
  7. 7. STROMA→ The stroma fills most of the volumeof the Chloroplast.→ It contains about 50% of the proteinof Chloroplast.→ It contains Ribosomes and DNAmolecule.
  8. 8. THYLAKOIDS→ Consist of flattened and closed vesiclesarranged as membranous network→It may be stacked like a neat pile of coinsforming GRANA→There may be 40-80 grana in the matrixof a Chloroplast.→ Thylakoids includes light-absorbingpigment s, a complex chain of electroncarriers, and an ATP-synthesizing apparatus
  9. 9. PLASTOGLOBULI→ These are osmophilic bodies, lipid rich granulesin stroma
  10. 10. →Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) - also known as plastidDNA (ptDNA).→ Circular double stranded DNA molecule.→ Chloroplast genome size 120-217kb .→ Majority of plants fall into 120-160kb. (Pelargoniumhas chloroplast genome size 217kb)CHLOROPLAST DNA
  11. 11. → Contains about 100 genes to synthesize proteins→ cpDNA regions includes Large Single-Copy(LSC) & Small Single-Copy (SSC) regions, andInverted Repeats (IRA & IRB).→ Conifers and a group of legumes lack InvertedRepeats.
  12. 12. SOME CHLOROPLAST CODING GENESGene Location FunctionatpB Large single-copy region of chloroplast Beta subunit of ATP synthethase, whichfunctions in the synthesis of ATP viaproton translocationrbcL Large single-copy region of chloroplast Large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphatecarboxylase/ oxygenase (RUBISCO),which functions in the initial fixation ofcarbon dioxide in the dark reactions.matK Large single-copy region of chloroplast Maturase, which functions in splicing typeII introns from RNA transcriptsndhF Small single-copy region of chloroplast Subunit of chloroplast NADHdehydrogenase, which functions inconverting NADH to NAD + H+, drivingvarious reactions of respiration
  13. 13. FUNCTIONS OF CHLOROPLAST→ Chloroplast is the site for photosynthesisLight reaction → Thylakoid membranesDark reaction → Stroma.→Chloroplast is the site for photorespiration.
  14. 14. Suggested Readings :. Cell and molecular Biology – Gerald Karp. Cell Biology – S.C.Rastogi. Genetics- B.D.Singh. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry – Michael M.CoxDavid L.Nelson
  15. 15. HTThank you

×