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Pleurotus and neurospora


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Pleurotus and neurospora

  2. 2. NEUROSPORA  SYSTEMATIC POSITION  Kingdom:Fungi  Phylum:Ascomycota  Subphylum:Pezizomycotina  Class:Ascomycetes  Order: Sphaeriales  Family:Sordariaceae
  3. 3.  Drosophila of plantkingdom (N. crassa , N. sitophila )  N. sitophila is known as bakery mold / red bread mold  Neurospra reside on soil, papaya, burned vegetation etc  Well branched multicellular septate mycelium with multi nucleate and multi pigmented cells
  4. 4. Reproduction Asexual – by conidia formation MACROCONIDIA LARGE , OVAL , MULTINUCLEATE DEVELOP IN MACROCONIDIOPHO RE BRANCH TIPS BY BUDDING MICROCONIDIA Uninucleate sticky and comparetively small than the macroconidia Develop in micro conidiophores on terminal or lateral positions
  5. 5. Micro conidia Macro conidia
  6. 6. SEM photograph of N. crassa
  7. 7. Sexual reproduction  Sex organs  Female - ascogonia ( protoperitheca / bulbils)  Develop as lateral outgrowth in vegetative hyphae  The young ascogonium is a coiled , multinucleate and aseptate strucure, septa are formed in the later stage of development
  8. 8.  Psuedoparenchymatous ball like structure formed around ascogonium  The upper cells of the ascogonium give rise to long tapering trychogyne  Antheridia are absent in neurospora but both macro and micro conidia may act as spermatia
  9. 9. Plasmogamy Micro and macroconidia (act as spermatia) come to the trychogyne of ascogonium Wall between them dissolve Nuclei enter to ascogonium Somatogamous copulation also occurs in some species
  10. 10. Development of ascus  Develops ascogenous hyphae with cells having dikaryon  Terminal cells curves and forms hook like structure called crozier  conjugate division and septation of crozier  4 nuclei distributed in the way that  terminal cell – 1 nuclei  Basal cell – 1 nuclei  penultimate cell - dikaryon
  11. 11. Fusion of dikaryon Penultimate cell Ascus mother with diploid nucleus Club or cylindrical Shaped ascus meiosis mitosis 4 nuclei8 nuclei Ascospore
  12. 12.  Wall formation and metamorphosis in to ascospore  ascospore arranged in asingle row  In N. tetra sperma has 4 ascospore per ascus  Ascospore is dark brown or black in colour  Ascospore germinate to form new hyphae  ( can be germinated by furfural and high temperature )
  13. 13.  Mature perithecium is a dark coloured , globose , flask shaped and beaked structure Life cycle – haplontic
  14. 14. Pleurotus – oyster mushroom  Classification  Domain: Eukarya  Kingdom: Fungi  Phylum: Basidiomycota  Class: Agaricomycetes  Order: Agaricales  Family: Pleurotacea  Genus: Pleurotus  Economic important ones -Pleurotus ostreatus ,Pleurotus pulmonarius, Pleurotus sajor-caju,Pleurotus cornucopiae, Pleurotus cystidiosus
  15. 15. Pleurotus species are characterized by the production of fruit bodies usually having an eccentric stalk and a wide cap shaped like oyster shell Pileus: broad, oyster- shape surface smooth, white to grey-white in colour Habit & Habitat Spring to autumn. They thrive on most of all hardwoods, wood byproducts such as coffee grounds, banana fronds, and waste cotton often enclosed by plastic bags and bottles.
  16. 16. Asexual reproduction  By means of arthroconidia on branched or simple conidiophores  P. cystidiosus possess coremia (bundle of hyphae)which will produce arthroconidia (diploid asexual spores that produce diploid fruit bodies , ovoid to sub spherical , pale brown to black and glaborous , with thickened wall)  Coremium is 800 – 2500μm tall ,150- 400 μm wide with coremioliquid in which large number of arthroconidia are released  Arthroconidia has clamp connection then on maturity it get separated
  17. 17. Development of Coremium  Aerial hyphae aggregate to form spherical primordia  Hyphae grow vertically form stipe and apex  Coremioliquid formed
  18. 18. coremioliquid Role :- for maturation and moisturisation Contents:- D- galactose, myo – inositol ,L- malic acid , UTP, oxalic acid Source :- from cell orgenelles and conduction through cytoplasmic flow
  19. 19. Sexual reproduction  Pleurotus is a member of the basidiomycota, meaning that it bears its spores externally on club shaped structures called basidia.  Millions of spores from basidium  Spore germinate to form haploid mycelium
  20. 20.  compatible mating type undergo plasmogamy (dikaryotic cell formed )  The new dikaryotic cell multiplies and divides – dominant stage  MUSHROOM Pleurotus will spend a majority of its life in this phase while growing and gathering nutrients. ENVIRONMENTAL TRIGGER
  21. 21. Dikaryotic basidia that line the surface area of the gills of mushroom karyogamy, of nuclei in the basidi (2n nucleus) four haploid nuclei of different mating types basidiospore cycle repeats
  22. 22. Life cycle is diplontic