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Chloroplast engineering

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Chloroplast engineering : An Eco-friendly Approach

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Chloroplast engineering

  1. 1. CHLOROPLAST ENGINEERING:AN ECOFRIENDLY APPROACH? BY : MISS.DESHMUKH SNEHAL AND MUSKE DEEPA
  2. 2. Contents INTRODUCTION OF PLASTID WHY GENETICALLY ENGINEER CHLOROPLASTS HOW CHLOROPLASTS TRANSFORMED APPLICATION OF CHLOROPLAST ENGINEERING LIMATATION 1 2 3 4 5
  3. 3. • photosynthetic chloroplasts, starch-storing amyloplasts, colorful chromoplasts of fruit • Site of photosynthesis, the biosynthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, etc. • the consequence of an endosymbiotic event between a eukaryotic host cell and an ancestor of the cyanobacteria • have their own genetic systems, and their own genomes Plastid
  4. 4. • 1 to 900 chloroplasts per plant cell • ~10,000 cpDNA per cell • CpDNA is packed into discrete structures called chloroplast nucleoids • genome size : - 30kb – 201 kb - variation in length mainly due to presence of inverted repeat (IR) - Generally 100-250 genes : gene expression, photosynthesis, metabolism Plastid
  5. 5. Why genetically engineer chloroplasts? • The risk of transgene escape  natural containment because of lack of pollen transmission • High expression level  high levels of transgene expression because of the high copy number of the plastomes  foreign protein accumulation of upto > 30% of TSP • Gene silencing  absence of position effects due to lack of a compact chromatin structure and efficient transgene integration by homologous recombination Science, 1999; p. 886
  6. 6. •difficulty of gene stacking  multiple transgene expression due to polycistronic mRNA transcription
  7. 7. Comparison of chloroplast and nuclear genetic engineering Daniell et al, 2012
  8. 8. BASIC OF CHLOROPLAST ENGINEERING Ralph Bock and Muhammad Sarwar Khan
  9. 9. Various steps in chloroplast genetic engineering Trends Plant Sci: 2012
  10. 10. Chloroplast Transformation Require 1. A chloroplast specific expression vector. 2. A method for DNA delivery through a double membrane of the chloroplast. 3. An efficient selection for the transplastome.
  11. 11. 1. A chloroplast specific expression vector • Depends on the integration of the foreign DNA into the chloroplast genome by homologous recombination. • > 400 bp of homologous sequence on each side of the construct is generally used to obtain chloroplast transformants at a reasonable frequency. • Chloroplast-specific promoters and termination signals. • transcribed as operons, which allows more than two ORFs to transcribe under the same promoter. • the selectable marker and the gene of interest are placed between the promoter and the terminator which are flanked by the 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions. Maliga, 2002
  12. 12. Excision by phage site-specific recombinanses
  13. 13. Plastid transformation in flowering plants: methods of transformation and gene targeting sites in the plastomes Molecular Plant Breeding 2012
  14. 14. Advantages of chloroplast engineering Multigene engineering Hyper expression No Vector Sequences No Gene Silencing No positional Effect No pleiotropic Effect Gene containment Maternal Inheritance
  15. 15. Application of chloroplast engineering • Improvement of agronomical traits • Green factory to produce recombinant proteins
  16. 16. Engineering the chloroplast genome for herbicide resistance • Glyphosate is a potent, broad-spectrum herbicide that is highly effective against grasses and broad-leaf weeds • Glyphosate works by competitive inhibition of an enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway, 5-enol-pyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) • Glyphosate does not distinguish crops from weeds, thereby restricting its use • Engineering crop plants for resistance to the herbicide is a standard strategy to overcome the lack of herbicide selectivity • Might cause genetic pollution among other crops • The Agrobacterium EPSPS gene was expressed in tobacco plastids and resulted in 250-fold higher levels of the glyphosate-resistant protein than were achieved via nuclear transformation
  17. 17. Engineering bacterial operons via chloroplast genomes • Typical plant nuclear mRNAs are monocistronic • This poses a serious drawback when engineering multiple genes. • By contrast, most chloroplast genes are co-transcribed as polycistronic RNAs • Recently, the Bt cry2Aa2 operon was used as a model system to test the feasibility of multigene operon expression in engineered chloroplasts • Operon-derived Cry2Aa2 protein accumulates in transgenic chloroplasts as cuboidal crystals, to a level of 45.3% of the total soluble protein and remains stable even in senescing leaves (46.1%) • Subsequently, the mer operon has been used to achieve phytoremediation of mercury
  18. 18. Engineering the chloroplast genome for pathogen resistance • Because plant diseases have plagued global crop production, it is highly desirable to engineer plants that are resistant to pathogenic bacteria and fungi • MSI-99 • In vitro and in planta assays with T0, T1and T2 plants confirmed that the peptide was expressed at high levels (up to 21.5% total soluble protein) and retained biological activity against Pseudomonas syringae, a major plant pathogen • In addition, leaf extracts from transgenic plants inhibited the growth of pre- germinated spores of three fungal species Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme and Verticillium dahliae by >95% compared with untransformed controls –these observations were confirmed by in planta assays
  19. 19. Engineering the chloroplast genome for drought tolerance • Water stress caused by drought, salinity or freezing is a major limiting factor in plant growth and development. • Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide of glucose whose synthesis is mediated by the trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) synthase and trehalose-6- phosphate phosphatase • Gene containment in transgenic plants is a serious concern when plants are genetically engineered for drought tolerance • TPS1 gene was introduced into the tobacco chloroplast and nuclear genomes to study the resultant phenotypes • chloroplast transgenic plants showed up to 25-fold higher accumulation of trehalose than nuclear transgenic plants • Nuclear transgenic plants with significant amounts of trehalose accumulation exhibited a stunted phenotype, sterility and other pleiotropic effects, whereas chloroplast transgenic plants grew normally and had no visible pleiotropic effects
  20. 20. Foreign gene expression in chloroplasts of higher plants
  21. 21. LIMITATIONS • Non green cell • Lack of genome sequence information • Lack of RNA stability

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