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Mitochondria ppt

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Mitochondria - A short ppt

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Mitochondria ppt

  1. 1. By, Devi Priya Sugathan Msc. Biochemistry and molecular biology.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Mitochondria is a double membrane bound organelle found in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.  Mito – thread, chondrion – granule like.  First observed by Richard Altman ( 1894)  Term mitochondria was coined by Carl Benda (1898)  They produce enzymes for the metabolic conversion of Richard Altman Carl Benda
  3. 3. POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL Mitochondria are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy–yielding molecule ATP to fuel the cells activities. The function known as aerobic respiration is the reason mitochondria are frequently referred to as the powerhouse of the cell. Aerobic respiration involves: Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron
  4. 4. ORIGIN OF MITOCHONDRIA  Mitochondria are derived from bacteria by a process termed as endosymbiosis.  Mitochondria arose about 2 billion years ago when a bacterium fused with an archael cell or established a symbiotic relationship with a primitive eukaryotic cell.  The closest extant relatives of Bacteria that gave rise to mitochondria are Rickettsia.  The first person to recognise mitochondria as descendents of endosymbiotic bacteria was Ivan
  5. 5. BIOGENESIS  They grow by importing most of their proteins from the cytoplasm and by internal synthesis of some proteins and replication of the genome.  Similar to cells, mitochondria divide and fuse with other mitochondria maintaining their number of cells.  Both fusion and fission
  6. 6.  Our understanding of mitochondrial fission and fusion has improved in recent years with the development of in vitro assays for their study and the identification of proteins required for both events.  The balance between fusion and fission is likely a major determinant of mitochondrial number, length, and degree of interconnection.  When fusion becomes more frequent than fission, the mitochondria tend to become more elongated and interconnected , whereas a predominance of fission leads to the formation of more numerous and distinct mitochondria.
  7. 7. LOCATION OF MITOCHONDRIA
  8. 8. MORPHOLOGY  Size 0.05 – 1.0 µm in diameter.  Length 1 – 10 µm long  Shape Bean shaped , in fibroblast it is elongated and thread like.  Number Depends on type, size and functional state of cell. Eg : an average liver cell contain around 1500 mitochondria.
  9. 9. STRUCTURE  OUTER MEMBRANE  INTERMEMBRANE SPACE  INNER MEMBRANE  CRISTAE  MATRIX  The outer and inner membrane is composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins. The two membranes have different properties.
  10. 10. OUTER MEMBRANE  Simple phospholipid bilayer.  It encloses the mitochondrian.  Contain large number of integral protein structures called porins, which allows molecules to freely diffuse from one side of the membrane to the other.  Porins pass molecules less then 5000 D.  Ions, nutrient molecules, ATP, ADP etc can pass through the outer membrane with ease.  The outer mitochondrial membrane is composed of about 50%
  11. 11. INTER MEMBRANE SPACE  It is also known as Perimitochondrial space.  The space between inner membrane and outer membrane .  It has high proton concentration.  The space between inner and outer membrane is approximately 70 A.  Because the outer membrane is freely permeable to small molecules, the concentration of small molecules such as ions and sugars in the intermembrane space is same as that of the cytosol.  Proteins present, participate in ATP synthesis
  12. 12. INNER MEMBRANE Is freely permeable only to oxygen, CO₂ , H₂O. The inner mitochondrial membrane contains proteins that perform redox reactions in oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase,transport proteins, protein import machinery, mitochondria fusion and fission protein. Several antiport systems exist , allowing exchange of anions between the cytosol and the mitochondrial
  13. 13. CRISTAE  Are folds of inner mitochondrial membrane, which expand its surface area , enhancing its ability to produce ATP.  Stalked particles or inner membrane spheres : cristae is covered with this inner membrane spheres called stalked particles or knobs or heads.
  14. 14. MATRIX  It is the space enclosed by the inner membrane.  Gel like consistency ,Dense , homogenous.  Contains 2/3 rd of total protein of mitochondria.  Matrix have enzymes, DNA genome, ribosomes, tRNA, granules, fibrils and tubules.  The matrix is important in the production of ATP with the aid of the ATP synthase contained in the inner membane.  Major enzymes include enzymes involved in - Synthesis of nucleic acid and proteins.
  15. 15. UNIQ UE  Mitochondria are unique in their own way containing their own circular DNA and their own ribosomes.  The DNA in the cell nucleus does not code for the construction of mitochondria.
  16. 16. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA (MTDNA)  Small, Double stranded ,covalently closed ,circular molecule.  Occurs in multiple copies.  It has 16569 bp.  Most usually remains attached to inner mitochondrial membrane.  Stores biological info required for growth and multiplication of mitochondria.
  17. 17.  Encode RNA s and proteins that are essential for mitochondrial function.  It codes 2rRNAs , 22 tRNAs and 13 mitochondrial membrane proteins.  Can undergo replication and duplication.  Not absolutely autonomous depends on nuclear DNA.
  18. 18. INHERITANCE OF MTDNA  Mitochondrial DNA is inherited maternally in most animals.  Fathers only give genes to their children but mothers give both genes and cytoplasm through their egg cell.  Since mitochondria are in the cytoplasm and reproduce themselves they only are inherited from mothers.  Hence this pattern of mtDNA inheritance is well known as “ maternal inheritance”.  Geneticists have used this
  19. 19. FUNCTI ON  Aerobic respiration – Mitochondria uses complex molecules and oxygen to produce a higher energy molecule known as ATP.  Mitochondria are more abundant in the cell that contain a lot of energy. Eg : muscle.  Extra mitochondrial inheritance: mtDNA contains plasma genes.
  20. 20.  Synthesis of mtDNA , RNA, protein.  Bring about gene expression through gene duplication transcription and translation.  Synthesis 13 different polypeptides in human.
  21. 21. SITE OF SEVERAL METABOLIC REACTIONS OUTER MEMBRANE Oxidation of epinephrine Degradation of tryptophan Elongation of fatty acid INNER MEMBRANE Oxidative phosphorylation MATRIX Kreb’s cycle Beta oxidation Detoxification of ammonia in urea cycle Storage of calcium ions.
  22. 22. OTHER FUNCTIONS  Production of heat( non shivering thermogenesis).  Role in apoptosis ( programmed cell death).  Synthesis of estrogen and testosterone.  Role in neurotransmitter metabolism.  Role on cholesterol metabolism.  Role in heme synthesis.
  23. 23. MITOCHONDRIAL DISORDERS  Mutations in genes for mitochondrial proteins encoded by both mtDNA and nuclear DNA causes disorders such as : Strokes Cardiomyopathy Neuropathy Hearing
  24. 24. THANK YOU

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