Act of imitating the some situation.
Representation of a manageable real event in which
the learner is an active behavior or participant
engaged in learning behavior or in applying previously
acquired skills or knowledge.
What are Instructional
When students use a model of behavior to gain a better
understanding of that behavior, they are doing a simulation. For
When students are assigned roles as buyers and sellers of some
good and asked to strike deals to exchange the good, they are
learning about market behavior by simulating a market.
When students take on the roles of party delegates to a political
convention and run the model convention, they are learning
about the election process by simulating a political convention.
When students create an electric circuit with an online program,
they are learning about physics theory by simulating an actual
Why Teach with Simulations?
Instructional simulations have the potential
to engage students in "deep learning" that
empowers understanding as opposed to
"surface learning" that requires only
Deep learning means that students:
Learn scientific methods
the importance of model building.
the relationships among variables in a model
data issues, probability and sampling theory.
how to use a model to predict outcomes.
Learn to reflect on and
extend knowledge by:
actively engaging in student-student or
instructor-student conversations needed to
conduct a simulation.
Transfering knowledge to new problems and
understanding and refining their own though
seeing social processes and social
interactions in action.
Earth quake drill
Sari-sari Store (Mathematics Concept)
Purposes of games
To practice or refine knowledge or skills already
Identify gaps or weakness in knowledge of skills;
Serve as summation or review;
Develops new relationship among concepts and
Difference between game and
Game are played to win: there is a competition.
Simulation needs not winner, seems to be more easily
applied to the issues rather than to processes.
General purposes of Simulation
and games in education
Develop changes in attitude
Change specific behavior.
Prepare for participants for assuming new roles in the
Help individuals understand their current roles.
Increase the students’ ability to apply principles.
Reduce complex problems or situations to
Illustrate roles that may affect one’s life but that one
may never assume.
To motivate learners
Develop analytical processes.
Sensitize individuals to another person’s life.
To overcome limitations of space and time.
To “edit” reality for us to be able to focus on parts or a
process of a system that we intend to study.
To overcome difficulties.
To understand inaccessible.
Help the learner understand abstraction.
Experiences used in
Is the model or mock up necessary or can you make
use of the original?
Could some other device such as a photograph or
chart portray the idea more effectively?
Is the idea appropriate for the presentation in a
Are the important details of construction correct?
Could wrong impressions of size, color and shape
result from using the model?
Does the model over simplify the idea?
If it is purchased, will the model be used often enough
to justify its cost?
If it is to be made by the students, is the model likely
to be worth the time, effort and money involved?
Contrived experiences are substitutes of real things
when it is not feasible to bring the real thing to the class.
The most important thing to remember when we
make use of models and mock ups are to make them as
close as the real represent. If for one reason or another they
could not replicate the real things. In size and color and we
should at least cautions the reader/learner or the user by
giving the scale.
Thank you for listening
LEONARDO Z. CAMBOJA, JR.