These are “edited” copies of reality and are
used as substitutes for real things when it
is not practical or not possible to bring or
do the real thing in the classroom.
These Contrived Experiences are designed
to simulate to real life situations.
A model is a “reproduction of a real thing in a small
scale, or large scale, or exact size – but made of
It is a substitute for a real thing which may or may
not be operational” (Brown , et. Al. 1969).
The atom & the planetarium are classified as
Is any individual or item considered typical of
group, class or whole.
Is an arrangement of a real device or
associated devices, displayed in such a way
that representation of reality is created.
Is a special model where the parts of a model
are singled out, heightened and magnified in
order to focus on that part or process under
The planetarium may also be considered a
May also include artificial displayed in a
museum or objects displayed in exhibits or
preserved insect specimens in science.
Is a representation of a manageable real event
in which the learner is an active participant
engaged in learning a behaviour or in applying
previously acquired skills or Knowledge.
Is there a difference between a game and a
Games are played to win while simulation used
to have a winner simulation seems to be more
easily applied to the study of issues rather than
Over limitations of space and time.
To “edit” reality for us to be able to focus
on parts or a process of a system that
we intend to study.
To overcome difficulties of size.
To understand the inaccessible
Help the learner understand
To developed changes in attitudes
To change specific behaviours
To prepare participants for assuming new roles in the future
To help individuals understand their current roles
To increase the student’s ability to apply principles
To reduce complex problems or situations to manageable
To illustrate roles that may affect one’s life but that one may
To motivate learners
To develop analytical process
To sensitive individuals to another person’s life role.