This slide deck was developed for a BYOD (bring your own device) presentation at the Ohio eTech conference, 2/15/12. Participants built their own ebook using CAST's UDL Book Builder free learning tool.
The CAST Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Lesson Builder provides educators with models and tools to create and adapt lessons that increase access and participation in the general education curriculum for all students. Welcome to CAST Science Writer , the tool that supports students in writing lab and class reports. This tool is geared toward middle school and high school students. Use CAST UDL Book Builder to create, share, publish, and read digital books that engage and support diverse learners according to their individual needs, interests, and skills.
Universal Design for Learning is an educational approach with three primary principles: Multiple means of representation, to give diverse learners options for acquiring information and knowledge, Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners options for demonstrating what they know, Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners' interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation
I thought you could quickly mention why we used these examples as an introduction to copyright, etc…
The origin of copyright “ The Congress shall have the power … to promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.” - U.S. Constitution. Art 1, Section 8
Original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression. The key concepts are Original, Fixed, and Tangible.
Copyright Does Not Protect Certain Works There are some things that copyright law does not protect. Copyright law does not protect the titles of books or movies, nor does it protect short phrases such as, “Make my day.” Copyright protection also doesn’t cover facts, ideas, or theories. These things are free for all to use without authorization. Short Phrases Phrases such as, “Show me the money” or, “Beam me up” are not protected under copyright law. Short phrases, names, titles, or small groups of words are considered common idioms of the English language and are free for anyone to use. However, a short phrase used as an advertising slogan is protectible under trademark law. In that case, you could not use a similar phrase for the purpose of selling products or services. Subsequent chapters explain how this rule applies to specific types of works. For more information on trademarks, see Chapter 10. Facts and Theories A fact or a theory—for example, the fact that a comet will pass by the Earth in 2027—is not protected by copyright. If a scientist discovered this fact, anyone would be free to use it without asking for permission from the scientist. Similarly, if someone creates a theory that the comet can be destroyed by a nuclear device, anyone could use that theory to create a book or movie. However, the unique manner in which a fact is expressed may be protected. Therefore, if a filmmaker created a movie about destroying a comet with a nuclear device, the specific way he presented the ideas in the movie would be protected by copyright. Example: Neil Young wrote a song, “Ohio,” about the shooting of four college students during the Vietnam War. You are free to use the facts surrounding the shooting, but you may not copy Mr. Young’s unique expression of these facts without his permission. In some cases, you are not free to copy a collection of facts because the collection of facts may be protectible as a compilation.
First that your own works are automatically covered by the Copyright Law. Unless they are created as a “work for hire” you own the copyright on your work. Equally important, that all students ’ works are covered by the Copyright Law. Finally, content available in digital form on the Internet and in e-mail is considered “tangible” thus is covered by copyright.
There are four common ways that works arrive in the public domain: the copyright has expired the copyright owner failed to follow copyright renewal rules the copyright owner deliberately places it in the public domain, known as “dedication,” or copyright law does not protect this type of work.
1. Obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. This process can take time and generally involves paying some form of royalty or licensing fee. 2. Reconsider your intended use. You can review your fair use analysis and determine which factors of your intended use most oppose fair use and make changes to be more favorable. For example, you could reduce the amount of material or choose content from different works that might be more favorable to fair use.
Build Your Own eBooks with UDL Book Builder
Welcome! While you’re waiting for the session, please visit http://bookbuilder.cast.org/ And create a free account! You’ll need this to participate during today’s session!
Build Your Own eBooks with CAST's UDL Book Builder Jessica Fries-Gaither Kimberly Lightle
About the Presenters <ul><li>Jessica Fries-Gaither </li></ul><ul><li>Education Resource Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>The Ohio State University </li></ul>Kimberly Lightle Director of Digital Libraries The Ohio State University
Today’s Agenda <ul><li>CAST and UDL </li></ul><ul><li>Sample E-book: Plants Need the Perfect Place </li></ul><ul><li>Create an E-book: How-To </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use, and Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Applications of E-books </li></ul>
What is CAST? Non-profit organization with a mission to expand learning opportunities for all individuals, especially those with disabilities, through the research and development of innovative, technology-based educational resources and strategies. http://cast.org /
What does CAST offer? Free multimedia learning tools http://cast.org/learningtools/index.html
What is Universal Design for Learning (UDL)? http://cast.org/udl/index.html UDL is a set of principles for curriculum development that provides all individuals equal opportunities to learn.
Let’s Listen to an E-Book Plants Need the Perfect Place Grades 3-5 Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle Available at http://beyondweather.ehe.osu.edu/stories-for-students Sunset Tower in the Pacific Island Water Garden, Franklin Park Conservatory. Image courtesy of mwhaling, Flickr.
Creating an E-book All links and materials are found here: http://bit.ly/castbookbuilder
Copyright, Fair Use, and Right to Reuse <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fair Use </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Reuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul></ul>
What Can Be Protected? <ul><li>Section 102 of the 1976 Copyright law lists: </li></ul><ul><li>musical works, including any accompanying words </li></ul><ul><li>dramatic works, including any accompanying music </li></ul><ul><li>pantomimes and choreography </li></ul><ul><li>pictorial, graphic and sculptural works </li></ul><ul><li>motion pictures and other audiovisual works </li></ul><ul><li>sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>architectural works </li></ul>
What Can ’t Be Protected? <ul><li>works already in the Public Domain (information, knowledge, discoveries, and artistic creations never or no longer protected by copyright) </li></ul><ul><li>those works not fixed in a tangible medium such as ideas </li></ul><ul><li>facts </li></ul><ul><li>works of the U.S. Government produced by government employees </li></ul>
Copyright is Automatic <ul><li>Copyright is the rule , rather than the exception. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials are copyright protected instantly . </li></ul><ul><li>The creator or author must do something in order to not have copyright protection. </li></ul>
How do you know when something is in the Public Domain? <ul><li>Anything published prior to 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Anything published between 1923 & 1978 without a copyright notice </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1978 and 1 March, 1989: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>various conditions apply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After 1 March 1989: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70 years after death of author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If corporate, or anonymous authorship, either 95 years from date of first publication, or 120 years from the date of creation, whichever comes first </li></ul></ul>
Copyright Law Exemption – Fair Use <ul><li>As defined in Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act, fair use is a defense against charges of copyright infringement determined through the analysis and application of the four fair use factors : </li></ul><ul><li>the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; </li></ul><ul><li>the nature of the copyrighted work; </li></ul><ul><li>the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; </li></ul><ul><li>the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. </li></ul>
How do you determine whether Fair Use applies? <ul><li>Free tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair Use Evaluator: http://www.librarycopyright.net/fairuse/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair Use Checklist: http://copyright.columbia.edu/copyright/files/2009/10/fairusechecklist.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking Through Fair Use: http://www.lib.umn.edu/copyright/fairthoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fair use frequently functions as an exemption to the copyright law for educational and socially important purposes such as teaching , research, criticism, commentary, parody, and news reporting. </li></ul>
What if your use is outside the limits of fair use? <ul><li>Obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconsider your intended use. </li></ul><ul><li>You could also try to find comparable works in the public domain or Creative Commons works that would meet your purpose. </li></ul>
Creative Commons <ul><li>Simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. </li></ul><ul><li>Every CC license helps creators to retain copyright while allowing others to copy, distribute, and make some uses of their work — at least non-commercially. </li></ul>http://creativecommons.org/choose/ http://search.creativecommons.org/
Search for Images <ul><li>Creative Commons is a meta-search – you can search Flickr, Fotopedia, Google, YouTube, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Search.USA.gov is the U.S. government’s official search engine. It is a comprehensive, searchable index of about 50 million pages from federal, state, local, territorial, and tribal websites. </li></ul>http://search.creativecommons.org/ http://search.usa.gov/images
Classroom Applications of E-books <ul><li>In pairs or small groups, discuss how you would use e-books in instruction. </li></ul>