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Government terms


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Government terms

  1. 1. Government Terms
  2. 2. Autocracy: One Person <ul><ul><li>Citizens have little control over the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power is in the hands of one person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government Forms: </li></ul><ul><li>Dictatorship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Germany’s Hitler, U.S.S.R.’s Stalin, Czar Nicholas II in Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolute Monarchy – one king in power with complete control </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: France’s King Louis XVI, Spain’s King Ferdinand </li></ul>
  3. 3. Autocracies of the World
  4. 4. Oligarchy: A Small Group <ul><li>Only a few people in a small group of royalty, wealth, family, or military influence make political decisions for the country’s people. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Forms: </li></ul><ul><li>Communism – a small group controls all the economic resources and government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: former Soviet Union, Cuba, China </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Democracy: The Citizens <ul><li>The citizens have a say in their government by voting in elections. </li></ul><ul><li>Most democracies today are republics , where the people elect leaders to represent them in the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries in the world are democracies. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Democratic Governments <ul><li>There are two predominate forms of democratic governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are designed to represent and protect the rights of the people </li></ul>
  7. 7. Presidential Democracy <ul><ul><li>Citizens usually vote for members of the executive AND legislative branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens directly vote for the leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single person is elected as the leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The president is both head of government (chief executive) and head of state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: U.S.A., Russia, Mexico </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Parliamentary Democracy <ul><ul><li>Citizens vote for members of the legislative branch, and then the legislature chooses the leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of government and head of state are TWO different people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Australia </li></ul>
  9. 9. Executive Legislature Citizens Citizens Legislature Executive Elect Elect Select Elect Parliamentary System Presidential System
  10. 10. Why Do We Have Governments? <ul><li>All countries require governments to function. </li></ul><ul><li>Governments provide laws, structure, public services, and national defense. </li></ul><ul><li>There are different types of governments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>democracies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>republics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monarchies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dictatorships </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. How Is Power Shared? <ul><li>Federal </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Unitary </li></ul>
  12. 12. Federal Government <ul><li>Federal – Power is shared by a powerful central government and the state or local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>States or provinces are given considerable self rule, usually through their own legislatures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Federation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Federal Governments of the World (All countries in green)
  14. 14. Unitary Government <ul><ul><li>Unitary – a system in which the power is held by one central authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All power is given to the one branch of government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Kingdom (U.K.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Soviet Union </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Unitary Governments of the World (All countries in blue)
  16. 16. Confederation <ul><ul><li>Confederation - a system in which power is shared by an alliance or union of political organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent states voluntarily work together for some common purpose and agree to certain limits on their freedom of action as a confederation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European Union </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switzerland </li></ul></ul></ul>