Types of governments


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Types of governments

  1. 1. Types of Governments
  2. 2. To study governments, geographers look at the following: <ul><li>Types – Who rules and who participates. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems – How the power is distributed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Government are based on one key question: Who governs and what is the citizen participation ? <ul><li>There are three types of governments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Autocracy <ul><li>Government in which the power to govern is held by one person. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally the power to rule is inherited or by military force. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three </li></ul><ul><li>types of Autocracy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. #1 Dictatorship <ul><li>The leader has not been elected and uses force to control all aspects of social and economic life. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union </li></ul>
  6. 6. #2 Absolute Monarchy <ul><li>A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress. </li></ul><ul><li>The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members. </li></ul><ul><li>The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions without consulting anyone. </li></ul>
  7. 7. #3 Constitutional Monarchy <ul><li>Kings, queens or emperors share power with elected legislatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally the Kings are nothing more than figureheads. </li></ul><ul><li>The government is a democratic one that limits the monarchs power. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Great Britain </li></ul>
  8. 8. Oligarchy <ul><li>A government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power. </li></ul><ul><li>The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status. </li></ul><ul><li>Elections may be held but offer </li></ul><ul><li>only one candidate. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Greek city states </li></ul>
  9. 9. Democracy <ul><li>In a democracy, the government is “Rule by the people” </li></ul><ul><li>There are two forms of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Democracy – People vote on all the issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative Democracy – People elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: United States </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. In a democracy…. <ul><li>Individual freedom and equality is valued. </li></ul><ul><li>Free elections are held </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions are based on majority rule. </li></ul><ul><li>All candidates can express their views freely. </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens vote by secret ballot. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Democratic Governments <ul><li>There are two major forms of democratic governments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parliamentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Parliamentary Democracy <ul><li>Voters elect members to the Parliament (legislature) </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament has two Houses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Commons : The Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister , the government ’ s leader with no set length of term. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House of Lords: Little power with most members being nobles having inherited their titles </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Presidential Democracy <ul><li>Voters elect legislators </li></ul><ul><li>Voters elect (indirectly) the president. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Executive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Executive Legislative Citizens Citizens Legislative Executive Elect Elect Select Elect Parliamentary System Presidential System
  15. 15. Putting it all together…. <ul><li>The United Kingdom is an autocratic constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and a unitary system. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States is a presidential democracy with a federal system. </li></ul><ul><li>What do those statements mean? </li></ul>
  16. 16. What do you remember? <ul><li>What are the three types of governments? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the three systems of government? </li></ul>