To study governments, geographerslook at the following: Types – Who rules and who participates? Systems – How the power is distributed?
Types of Government are based onone key question: Who governs andwhat is the citizen participation? There are three types of governments: Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy
AutocracyGovernment in which the power to governis held by one person.Generally the power to rule is inherited orby military force.There are three types of Autocracy.
#1 DictatorshipThe leader has not beenelected and uses force tocontrol all aspects ofsocial and economic life.Examples: Adolf Hitler inGermany and JosephStalin in the Soviet Union
#2 Absolute Monarchy Brunei, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Vatican City.A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor orempress.The power is usually inherited or passeddown from family members.The monarch has absolute power meaningthey can make all decisionswithout consulting anyone.
#3 Constitutional MonarchyKings, queens or emperors share powerwith elected legislatures.Generally they are nothing more thanfigureheads (ceremonial).The government is a democratic one thatlimits the monarchs power.Example: Great Britain
OligarchyA government in which a few people suchas a dominant clan or clique have power.The group gets their power from eithermilitary, wealth or social status.Elections may be held but offeronly one candidate.Example:Greek city states Caudillos - those who owned large estates throughout Sparta the land.
DemocracyIn a democracy, the government is“Ruled by the people”There are two forms of democracy Direct Democracy – People vote on all the issues. Representative Democracy – People elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues. Example: United States
In a democracy….Individual freedom and equality isvalued.Free elections are heldDecisions are based on majority rule.All candidates can express their viewsfreely.Citizens vote by secret ballot.
Democratic GovernmentsThere are two major kinds ofdemocratic governments: Parliamentary Presidential
Parliamentary Democracy Voters elect members to the Parliament (legislature) Parliament has two Houses: House of Commons: The Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister, the government’ s leader with no set length of term. House of Lords: Little power with most members being nobles having inherited their titles.
Presidential DemocracyVoters elect legislatorsVoters elect (indirectly) the president. Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government : Legislative Executive
Parliamentary Presidential System SystemExecutive Executive Legislative Select Elec Elec Elec tLegislative t t ElectCitizens Citizens
Systems of Government are basedon one question: How is the power distributed? There are three ways governments distribute power: Unitary Confederation Federal
UnitaryOne central government controlseverything.Power is not shared between states,counties or provinces.Examples : United Kingdom, France,the Netherlands, and Spain
Unitary Ways Government Distributes PowerRegional RegionalAuthority Authority Central AuthorityRegional RegionalAuthority Authority
ConfederationA voluntary association of independent statesthat agrees to follow a powerful centralgovernment.Nations can choose to follow or not follow thelead of the weak central government.Examples: Confederate States of America( 1861-1865), Russian Federation.
Confederation Ways Government Distributes PowerRegional RegionalAuthority Authority Central AuthorityRegional RegionalAuthority Authority
FederalPower is shared by a powerful centralgovernment.States or provinces are givenconsiderable self rule, usually throughtheir own legislatures.Examples: United States, Germany
Federation / Federal Ways Government Distributes PowerRegional RegionalAuthority Authority Central AuthorityRegional RegionalAuthority Authority
How is the power distributed?All key powers State/regionalare held by the authorities central hold most of government the powerUnitary ConfederationStrong central Federal Weaker central government Shared power government
How Governments Determine Citizen Participation High Participation High Participation Citizen Participation Citizen Participation Government Power Government Power Government Power General Citizens’ Select Citizens’ Participation ParticipationLow or No Participation Low or No Participation Low or No ParticipationAutocratic Oligarchic Democracy
Putting it all together….The United Kingdom is an autocraticconstitutional monarchy with aparliamentary democracy and a unitarysystem.The United States is a presidentialdemocracy with a federal system.What do those statements mean?
What do you remember?What are the three types ofgovernments? Autocracy, Oligarchy, and DemocracyWhat are the three systems ofgovernment? Unitary, Confederation, and Federal