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Positive Support Approach To Behavior Management In The Classroom


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Positive Support Approach To Behavior Management In The Classroom

  1. 1. Positive support approach to behavior management in the classroom How does this get managed? kyle a brophy, MS Ed
  2. 2. A not so silly point about credentials <ul><li>MS in education, in Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Pennsylvania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate School of Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>BS in Human Development & Family Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penn State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Juvenile detention facility (108-bed) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facility supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff trainer, certified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crisis management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TSS in Philly classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary school ISS </li></ul><ul><li>Residential counselor in special education school </li></ul>
  3. 3. Perception of support <ul><li>How do the students perceive you? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are the students perceiving you this way? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Student-teacher interactions <ul><li>Survey by Casteel (1997) [as cited in Furguson (2003)] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of African American students sought to please teacher with schoolwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of Euro American students sought to please the teacher, most sought to please the parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher mediates the relationship (as the adult or authority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predicated on the teacher’s preconceived notions and expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect influence on student achievement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater impact on African American students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Student-teacher interactions <ul><li>If teacher had equally negative expectation for African American and Euro American … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then worse outcome for African American </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If teacher had negative expectation for African American, but neutral or positive expectation for Euro American … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then even worse outcome for African American </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Northern California Study (Noguera, 2003) <ul><li>“ My Teachers Support Me and Care About My Success in Their Class” (In Percentages) </li></ul><ul><li>(N = 537) </li></ul>Black Asian White Male Female Male Female Male Female Strongly agree 8 12 24 36 33 44 Agree 12 16 42 33 21 27 Disagree 38 45 6 15 18 11 Strongly disagree 42 27 8 16 28 18 Total agree 24% 67.5% 62.5%
  7. 7. MetLife Annual Survey on Teaching (Metlife, 2000, p. 184)* <ul><li>N = 3,961 </li></ul><ul><li>39% minimally or don’t trust the teacher, but … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>47% of minority students don’t trust the teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>53% of poor students don’t trust the teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*[as cited by Noguera (2003, p. 449)] </li></ul>
  8. 8. Interesting addendum <ul><li>Limited research in how teachers interact with African American versus Euro American students (mostly in 70’s & 80’s) </li></ul>
  9. 9. From a hermeneutics framework * <ul><li>What is your perception of your students? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did this come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic or stereotype </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why does it persist? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How would this affect our interactions with our students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to self-reflection? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After self-reflection? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[see also Ferguson (2003) for info on detrimental results of teachers’ perceptions and expectations] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* (Nakkula & Ravitch, 1998) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Make me pick up a pencil <ul><li>Who can we effectively change? </li></ul><ul><li>What can we effectively change? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we change it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge / information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values – understanding what we stand to gain </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Maladaptive behaviors <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are some examples of what we see in the classroom? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Maladaptive behavior as Response to “ecological stimuli” multiple levels of interaction: <ul><ul><li>Student-teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current difficulty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>History of deficit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-social status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation of classroom peer response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-school environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student –expected result of the education experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The meaning of the end result? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-family’s belief about education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-friends’ belief about education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetual support of the idea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-society’s belief and expectation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Maladaptive behaviors <ul><li>Look at them as a form of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you think we can we address them? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Positive behavior support <ul><li>Do not reinforce negative behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not comment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not say “I’m not going to comment on that.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not respond with non-verbal, postural, facial expression, etc. changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Including “microexpressions” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure environment remains safe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ It’s going to get worse before it get’s better.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Positive behavior support <ul><li>Presume intellect </li></ul><ul><li>Presume interest in self-improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They have their own personal barriers to confront </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Childhood and adolescence are epochs in the life course development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing self-regulation of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament & Intellect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological influences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing an increasing framework for independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mistakes are a necessary part of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See them as opportunities to support them, not to push them away </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Learning deficient (ld) <ul><li>Ineffectively called “learning disabled” </li></ul><ul><li>Medical (psychiatric) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychometric (IQ, dyslexia, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual differences in genetically and epigenetically based predispositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response / Reactivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement / Regulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Temperament: Four Major Approaches & Their Dimensions * * (Teglasi et al., 2004, p.10)
  18. 18. Temperament effect on LD <ul><li>Effortful regulation, temperament & executive functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited human capacity for effortful self-regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic temperament processes require effort, e.g., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderating intense emotions, increased distractibility, modulating level of activity, attention span, task persistence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of capacity for executive functions (cognitive competencies) and social and intra-personal competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flatter learning development trajectory </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Temperament and ld <ul><li>Helping the student build appropriate skills to overcome temperament deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Effort attributions training (in self-talk) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’m going to try this, even if it’s hard.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There must be a way.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I’ll take it one part at a time.” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What have we learned? <ul><li>We can control ourselves and the environment, but not any other person in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>We need to understand how we think about the students </li></ul><ul><li>Maladaptive behavior are reactive forms of communication, not attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Students seek self-improvement in the world that they see, not the world we see </li></ul><ul><li>We help through positive support </li></ul>
  21. 21. Questions <ul><li>??? </li></ul>
  22. 22. References: <ul><li>Casteel, C. (1997). Attitudes of African American and Caucasian Eighth Grade Students About Praises, Rewards, and Punishments. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 31 (April), 262-272. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferguson, R.F. (2003). Teachers’ Perceptions and Expectations and the Black-White Test Score Gap. Urban Education, 38 (4), 460-507. </li></ul><ul><li>Metlife (2000). The Metlife Survey of the American Teacher, 2000: Are We Preparing Students for the 21 st Century? New York: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>Nakkula, M.J. & Ravitch, S.M. (1998). Matters of Interpretation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Noguera, P. (2003). The Trouble with Black Boys: The Role and Influence of Environmental and Cultural Factors on the Academic Performance of African American Males. Urban Education, 38 (4), 431-459. </li></ul><ul><li>Teglasi, H., Cohn, A. & Meshbesher, N. (2004). Temperament and Learning Disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27 (1), 9-20. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Interesting, additional readings: <ul><li>Goddard, R.D. & Goddard, Y.L. (2001). A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship Between Teacher and Collective Efficacy in Urban Schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17 , 807-818. </li></ul><ul><li>*Greenwalt, K.A. (2008). Through the Camera’s Eye: A Phenomenological Analysis of Teacher Subjectivity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 387-399. </li></ul><ul><li>*Knoblauch, D. & Hoy, A.W. (2008). “Maybe I Can Teach Those Kids.” The Influence of Contextual Factors on Student Teachers’ Efficacy Beliefs. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 166-179. </li></ul><ul><li>Mazzei, L.A. (2008). Silence Speaks: Whiteness Revealed in the Absence of Voice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 1125-1136. </li></ul><ul><li>Milner, H.R., IV (2008). Disrupting Deficit Notions of Difference: Counter-narratives of Teachers and Community in Urban Education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 1573-1598. </li></ul><ul><li>Moore, G.T. & Lackney, J.A. (1993). School Design: Crisis, Educational Performance and Design Applications. Children’s Environments 10 (2), 1-22. </li></ul><ul><li>* Indicates student teaching as the subject </li></ul>
  24. 24. (more) Interesting, additional readings: <ul><li>Orr, M.T., Byrne-Jimenez, M., McFarlane, P. & Brown, B. (2005). Leading Out from Low-Performing Schools: The Urban Principal Experience. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 4 (1), 23-54. </li></ul><ul><li>Schneider, M. (2002, November). Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes? Washington D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved November 2008 from </li></ul><ul><li>Smith, E. (2008). Raising Standards in American Schools? Problems with Improving Teacher Quality. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 610-622. </li></ul><ul><li>Talbert-Johnson, C. (2004). Structural Inequalities and the Achievement Gap in Urban Schools. Education and Urban Society, 37 (1), 22-36. </li></ul><ul><li>Uhlenberg, J. & Brown, K.M. (2002). Racial Gap in Teachers’ Perceptions of the Achievement Gap. Education and Urban Society, 34 (4), 493-530. </li></ul><ul><li>Zyngier, D. (2008). (Re)conceptualising Student Engagement: Doing Education Not Doing Time. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 , 1765-1776. </li></ul>