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Kyoto Protocol
An international agreement between industrialized
nations to lower greenhouse gas emissions.
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Kyoto Protocol
Adopted in Kyoto,Japan,11December 1997
and entered into force on 16 February
2005.
2
Eligibility
requirements
Ratified the Kyoto Protocol
Must calculate their assigned amount in terms of
tones of CO2-equivalent emissions.
In place a national system for estimating emissions
& removals of greenhouse gases within their
territory.
National register to record & track the creation &
movement of ERU , CER , AAU , RMU & annually
report information to the secretarial.
Annually report information on emissions & removals
to the secretariat.
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Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA)
When fossil fuels are burned they produce
they produce energy, which is used for
things like electricity/fuel.
3
Greenhouse gas emission
the emission of any gaseous substance that
inhibits the release of heat from the
atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise at
the earths surface & ultimately causing the
occurrence of extreme weather for extended
period of times.
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First commitment period
The maximum amount of emissions
(measured as the equivalent in carbon
dioxide) that a Party may emit over a
commitment period in order to comply with
its emissions target is known as a
4
Global warming is occurring,
it is extremely likely that human-made CO2
emissions have predominantly caused it.
Canada withdrew effectively from December
2012.
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5
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6
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7
Objectives
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8
COMMITMENT
PERIOD
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3 mechanisms to help
economies achieve their target
Promotes environmentally-
friendly foreign investments
form industrialized countries
into developing countries.
Sponsor foreign research to
decrease emission levels in
countries transition. In
exchange host countries
provides the investor with
emission reduction units.
Emissions trading
Clean development
mechanism(CDM)
Joint implementation
Trading of emissions
allowances between countries
9
How?
Compensating
for emissions
Compensation by increasing the number of a
countries sinks.
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Clean Development Management /Joint implementation/Emission Trading
 Implement an emission-reduction
project in developing countries.
 Earn saleable certified emission
reduction credits , equivalent to 1
tonne of CO2,which can be counted
towards meeting Kyoto targets.
 Mechanism = trailblazer
 1st global , environmental
investment & credit scheme of its
kind , providing a standardized
emissions offset instrument , CER.
 Stimulates sustainable
development &emission reduction ,
industrialized countries have the
flexibility.
 E.g:-rural electrification project,
solar panels/installation of more
energy-efficient boilers.
10
 Allows a country with an
emission reduction/limitation
commitment under the Kyoto
protocol.
 Earn emission reduction
units, equivalent to 1 ton of
CO2,as a target.
 Offers parties a flexible &
cost-efficient means of
fulfilling a part of their
commitments, while the host
party benefits from foreign
investments & technology
transfer.
 Can acquire emission units
from other countries with
commitments under the
protocol & use them to meet
a part of their Kyoto targets.
 An international transaction
log, a software-based
accounting system , ensures
the secure transfer of
emission reduction units
between countries.
 Spurred the creation of the
European Union emissions
trading schemes,& foresee
the growth & linking of
emissions markets globally.
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Challenges
11
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Challenges
 In the first 2 years after the treaty took effect , most of the participants
failed to meet their emission targets.
 The benefit was negligent to the environment 0.005%,according to critics.
 China , world’s leading emitter of greenhouse gases , after USA the 2nd largest
emitter , were not bound to the protocol(China , developing country whereas
USA developed country)
 Despite continuing with the protocol it is making a very small difference.
Hence , the countries argued that improving adaption to climate variability
and change is as important as reducing gas emissions.
12
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0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
2012 2015 2017
Clean development mechanism
30% 50% 70%
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 The Kyoto Protocol is an important step towards a greener tmrw since it is
striving to become a global commitment for GHG emission reduction. Also , it
importantly provides mechanisms for achieving the goals and represents an
obligation on countries.
 Major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37
industrialized countries and the European community for reducing green
house gases emissions.
14
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How did the Kyoto Protocol Work Out?
In 2005, many countries, including those in the EU, planned to
meet or exceed their targets under the agreement by 2011.
Others, such as the US and China- the world’s biggest emitters-
produced enough GHGs to mitigate any of the progress made by
countries who met their targets.
In fact, there was an increase of about 40% in emissions globally
between 1990 and 2009.
Why did the US not sign the
Kyoto Protocol?
•The US dropped out of the
agreement in 2001, calling the
treaty unfair because it mandated
only developed countries to reduce
emissions, and felt that doing so
would hinder the US economy.
•Talks have been marred by politics,
money, lack of leadership and lack
of consensus. GHG emissions are still
rising, and countries are not
addressing them quickly enough.
15
The Paris
Climate
Agreement
Adopted to address the –ve
effects of climate crisis.
Commitments were made from
all major GHG-emitting countries
to cut their emissions and
strengthen these commitments
over time.
A major directive of the
agreement is to cut GHG
emissions so as to limit global
temperature rise in this century
to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-
industrial levels, while taking
steps to limit this to 1.5 degrees.
It also provides a way for
developed nations to help
developing nations and creates a
framework for monitoring and
reporting countries’ climate
goals transparently.
The Doha
Amendment
After the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ended in December 2012,
parties to the Protocol met in Doha, Qatar, to discuss an amendment to the original
Kyoto agreement. The Doha Amendment added new targets for the second
commitment period, 2012-2020, for participating countries, during which time
parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18% below 1990 levels
This was short-lived; in 2015,
all UNFCCC participants signed
another pact, the Paris Climate
Agreement, which effectively
replaced the Kyoto Protocol.
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Developed vs Developing Nations
Recognising that developed
countries are principally
responsible for the current
levels of GHG emissions as a
result of more than 150 years of
unmitigated industrial activity,
the Protocol placed a heavier
burden on them. 37
industrialised nations plus the
EU were mandated to cut their
GHG emissions, while
developing countries were
asked to voluntarily comply;
more than 100 developing
countries, including China and
India, were exempted from the
treaty.
The Protocol separated
countries into two groups:
Annex I contained developed
nations, and Non-Annex I
contained developing countries.
Emission limits were placed on
Annex I countries only. Non-
Annex I countries could invest
in projects to lower emissions
in their countries. For these
projects, developing countries
earned carbon credits that they
could trade or sell to developed
countries, allowing the
developing nations a higher
level of maximum carbon
emissions for that period. This
effectively allowed developed
countries to continue emitting
GHGs.
The Protocol established a
monitoring, review and
verification system, as well as a
compliance system to ensure
transparency and hold parties
accountable. All countries’
emissions had to be monitored
and precise records of the
trades kept through registry
systems.
16
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Summary
Kyoto protocol
17
 The Kyoto Protocol is an important step
towards a greener tmrw since it is striving to
become a global commitment for GHG
emission reduction. Also , it importantly
provides mechanisms for achieving the goals
and represents an obligation on countries.
 Major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it
sets binding targets for 37 industrialized
countries and the European community for
reducing green house gases emissions.
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References
Sites and links that help you in the research
 https://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the-
kyoto-protocol-a-post-mortem
 https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/RL33826.ht
ml#:~:text=The%20Kyoto%20Protocol%20states%20that,
of%20such%20gases%20by%20at
 https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/what-is-
kyoto-protocol.php
 https://blog.ipleaders.in/kyoto-protocol-agenda-21-
rio-declaration/
 https://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol
 http://www.ericrettberg.com/dataculta/uncategorize
d/1339/
 https://www.scribd.com/document/206582881/What-
is-Kyoto-Protocol
 https://prezi.com/p/x2i_7ovtwz1v/kyoto-protocol/
 http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatech
ange2/09_1.shtml
 https://www.grida.no/resources/6900
Thank You
Avantika Badgujar
+91 9892968429
Badgujar.avantika19btt006@email.com
https://theuncoiled.com/Travel

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Kyoto protocol

  • 1. Kyoto Protocol An international agreement between industrialized nations to lower greenhouse gas emissions.
  • 2. Your Logo or Name Here Kyoto Protocol Adopted in Kyoto,Japan,11December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. 2 Eligibility requirements Ratified the Kyoto Protocol Must calculate their assigned amount in terms of tones of CO2-equivalent emissions. In place a national system for estimating emissions & removals of greenhouse gases within their territory. National register to record & track the creation & movement of ERU , CER , AAU , RMU & annually report information to the secretarial. Annually report information on emissions & removals to the secretariat.
  • 3. Your Logo or Name Here Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) When fossil fuels are burned they produce they produce energy, which is used for things like electricity/fuel. 3 Greenhouse gas emission the emission of any gaseous substance that inhibits the release of heat from the atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise at the earths surface & ultimately causing the occurrence of extreme weather for extended period of times.
  • 4. Your Logo or Name Here First commitment period The maximum amount of emissions (measured as the equivalent in carbon dioxide) that a Party may emit over a commitment period in order to comply with its emissions target is known as a 4 Global warming is occurring, it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it. Canada withdrew effectively from December 2012.
  • 5. Your Logo or Name Here 5
  • 6. Your Logo or Name Here 6
  • 7. Your Logo or Name Here 7 Objectives
  • 8. Your Logo or Name Here 8 COMMITMENT PERIOD
  • 9. Your Logo or Name Here 3 mechanisms to help economies achieve their target Promotes environmentally- friendly foreign investments form industrialized countries into developing countries. Sponsor foreign research to decrease emission levels in countries transition. In exchange host countries provides the investor with emission reduction units. Emissions trading Clean development mechanism(CDM) Joint implementation Trading of emissions allowances between countries 9 How? Compensating for emissions Compensation by increasing the number of a countries sinks.
  • 10. Your Logo or Name Here Clean Development Management /Joint implementation/Emission Trading  Implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries.  Earn saleable certified emission reduction credits , equivalent to 1 tonne of CO2,which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.  Mechanism = trailblazer  1st global , environmental investment & credit scheme of its kind , providing a standardized emissions offset instrument , CER.  Stimulates sustainable development &emission reduction , industrialized countries have the flexibility.  E.g:-rural electrification project, solar panels/installation of more energy-efficient boilers. 10  Allows a country with an emission reduction/limitation commitment under the Kyoto protocol.  Earn emission reduction units, equivalent to 1 ton of CO2,as a target.  Offers parties a flexible & cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their commitments, while the host party benefits from foreign investments & technology transfer.  Can acquire emission units from other countries with commitments under the protocol & use them to meet a part of their Kyoto targets.  An international transaction log, a software-based accounting system , ensures the secure transfer of emission reduction units between countries.  Spurred the creation of the European Union emissions trading schemes,& foresee the growth & linking of emissions markets globally.
  • 11. Your Logo or Name Here Challenges 11
  • 12. Your Logo or Name Here Challenges  In the first 2 years after the treaty took effect , most of the participants failed to meet their emission targets.  The benefit was negligent to the environment 0.005%,according to critics.  China , world’s leading emitter of greenhouse gases , after USA the 2nd largest emitter , were not bound to the protocol(China , developing country whereas USA developed country)  Despite continuing with the protocol it is making a very small difference. Hence , the countries argued that improving adaption to climate variability and change is as important as reducing gas emissions. 12
  • 13. Your Logo or Name Here 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 2012 2015 2017 Clean development mechanism 30% 50% 70%
  • 14. Your Logo or Name Here  The Kyoto Protocol is an important step towards a greener tmrw since it is striving to become a global commitment for GHG emission reduction. Also , it importantly provides mechanisms for achieving the goals and represents an obligation on countries.  Major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing green house gases emissions. 14
  • 15. Your Logo or Name Here How did the Kyoto Protocol Work Out? In 2005, many countries, including those in the EU, planned to meet or exceed their targets under the agreement by 2011. Others, such as the US and China- the world’s biggest emitters- produced enough GHGs to mitigate any of the progress made by countries who met their targets. In fact, there was an increase of about 40% in emissions globally between 1990 and 2009. Why did the US not sign the Kyoto Protocol? •The US dropped out of the agreement in 2001, calling the treaty unfair because it mandated only developed countries to reduce emissions, and felt that doing so would hinder the US economy. •Talks have been marred by politics, money, lack of leadership and lack of consensus. GHG emissions are still rising, and countries are not addressing them quickly enough. 15 The Paris Climate Agreement Adopted to address the –ve effects of climate crisis. Commitments were made from all major GHG-emitting countries to cut their emissions and strengthen these commitments over time. A major directive of the agreement is to cut GHG emissions so as to limit global temperature rise in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above pre- industrial levels, while taking steps to limit this to 1.5 degrees. It also provides a way for developed nations to help developing nations and creates a framework for monitoring and reporting countries’ climate goals transparently. The Doha Amendment After the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ended in December 2012, parties to the Protocol met in Doha, Qatar, to discuss an amendment to the original Kyoto agreement. The Doha Amendment added new targets for the second commitment period, 2012-2020, for participating countries, during which time parties committed to reduce GHG emissions by at least 18% below 1990 levels This was short-lived; in 2015, all UNFCCC participants signed another pact, the Paris Climate Agreement, which effectively replaced the Kyoto Protocol.
  • 16. Your Logo or Name Here Developed vs Developing Nations Recognising that developed countries are principally responsible for the current levels of GHG emissions as a result of more than 150 years of unmitigated industrial activity, the Protocol placed a heavier burden on them. 37 industrialised nations plus the EU were mandated to cut their GHG emissions, while developing countries were asked to voluntarily comply; more than 100 developing countries, including China and India, were exempted from the treaty. The Protocol separated countries into two groups: Annex I contained developed nations, and Non-Annex I contained developing countries. Emission limits were placed on Annex I countries only. Non- Annex I countries could invest in projects to lower emissions in their countries. For these projects, developing countries earned carbon credits that they could trade or sell to developed countries, allowing the developing nations a higher level of maximum carbon emissions for that period. This effectively allowed developed countries to continue emitting GHGs. The Protocol established a monitoring, review and verification system, as well as a compliance system to ensure transparency and hold parties accountable. All countries’ emissions had to be monitored and precise records of the trades kept through registry systems. 16
  • 17. Your Logo or Name Here Summary Kyoto protocol 17  The Kyoto Protocol is an important step towards a greener tmrw since it is striving to become a global commitment for GHG emission reduction. Also , it importantly provides mechanisms for achieving the goals and represents an obligation on countries.  Major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing green house gases emissions.
  • 18. Your Logo or Name Here References Sites and links that help you in the research  https://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the- kyoto-protocol-a-post-mortem  https://www.everycrsreport.com/reports/RL33826.ht ml#:~:text=The%20Kyoto%20Protocol%20states%20that, of%20such%20gases%20by%20at  https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/what-is- kyoto-protocol.php  https://blog.ipleaders.in/kyoto-protocol-agenda-21- rio-declaration/  https://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol  http://www.ericrettberg.com/dataculta/uncategorize d/1339/  https://www.scribd.com/document/206582881/What- is-Kyoto-Protocol  https://prezi.com/p/x2i_7ovtwz1v/kyoto-protocol/  http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatech ange2/09_1.shtml  https://www.grida.no/resources/6900
  • 19. Thank You Avantika Badgujar +91 9892968429 Badgujar.avantika19btt006@email.com https://theuncoiled.com/Travel