Research process - 2013 - for IS5232 module


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Introduction to Research process for Information literacy of undergraduates

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Research process - 2013 - for IS5232 module

  1. 1. Research Process J J G Arachchige
  2. 2. • Introduction to research process • prepare the research proposal • Writing the research report
  3. 3. Beginning of scientific inquiry • The curiosity of the human nature leads them for investigations • Dogma • Logical thinking
  4. 4. • Scientific enquiry began with the curiosity of human nature and logical thinking towards the natural existence of the universe and against the teaching of religious Dogmas.
  5. 5. Deductive reasoning The first systematic approach to reasoning e.g. Major premise – All men are mortal Miner premise- I am a man Conclusion- I am mortal
  6. 6. Inductive reasoning Specific premises 1 - Nimal, Wikki, John and Piyal attended class regularly Specific premises 2 - Nimal, Wikki, John and Piyal received high score of marks Conclusion - Attending class regularly results in high score of marks
  7. 7. Deductive-Inductive reasoning – Deductive-Inductive reasoning process involves the integration of both above to find a solution to the problem. • Problem • hypothesis • Collection, organization and analysis of data • conclusions • Verification, rejection or modification of hypothesis Scientific approach
  8. 8. What is Research • Research is all about addressing an issue or asking and answering a question or solving a problem. • We do problem solving in our day-to-day life informally. • Yet, to be a research it should follow scientific method which is more formal, systematic and carefully analyzed.
  9. 9. • Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable.
  10. 10. Types of Research – mode of application • Fundamental or Basic research • Applied research • Action Research
  11. 11. Fundamental research • Fundamental research is usually carried on in a laboratory or other sterile environment, some times with animals. • This type of research which has no immediate or planned application may later result in further research of applied nature. • In behavioral science, Fundamental research may be concerned with the development and testing of theories of behavior.
  12. 12. Applied research • Applied research has most of the characteristics of fundamental research. • The purpose is to improve the product or process testing theoretical concepts in actual problem situations.
  13. 13. Action research • Action research is focused on immediate application, not on the development of a theory or on general application. Its findings are to be evaluated in local applicability. • Solution of problems in a particular setting
  14. 14. Types of research - objectives Research can be – descriptive, – corelational, – explanatory, – Exploratory according to the nature of the research conducted.
  15. 15. • Inquiry mode Quantitative Qualitative
  16. 16. Research Process • • • • • • • Identification of the problem Definition the problem Formulation of hypothesis Design the research Collection, organization and analysis of data Formulation of conclusions Verification, rejection or modification of hypothesis by the test of its consequences in a specific situation.
  17. 17. Identification of the problem Problems are all around us. Research problems can be identified through: – Observation. – Literature reviews. – Professional conferences. – Contacting experts.
  18. 18. 1. The problem Source:
  19. 19. 2. Selecting a topic • Select a broad topic in your interested area • Derive a researchable problem from the broad topic by narrowing the scope • Raise research questions • Formulate objectives • Determine its importance and feasibility
  20. 20. Researchable Problem • Sleeping in class rooms • Sleeping of undergraduate students during lectures • Factors affecting on sleepiness of undergraduates during lectures • Factors affecting on sleepiness of Science undergraduates during IL lectures
  21. 21. Activity 1 • Narrow down your broad topic to form a researchable topic. Problem :There are road accidents much more than ever. There are various reasons for increasing of road accidents. One may be the use of alcohol by drivers during driving. It should be researched to find out whether there is an effect of alcohol use on accidents. • Time - 5 minutes
  22. 22. 3. Research Questions Why do Science undergraduates sleep during IL lectures?
  23. 23. Activity 2 • Formulate a research question on your topic Time - 2 minutes Effect of alcohol use by drivers on road accidents
  24. 24. Formulation of hypothesis • Hypotheses are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the solution of the problem. • A tentative explanation of the relationship between two or more variables
  25. 25. • • • • The hypothesis should be reasonable Be Consistent with known fact or theories Possible to be tested. True or false Should be stated in the simple possible terms • Simple, specific and conceptully clear
  26. 26. • Hypotheses have two or more variables • Independent variable - cause • Dependent variable - Outcome/effect • Extraneous variable – other factors affecting
  27. 27. Variables to form the Hypothesis • • • • • • • • Sleepiness during lectures – (dependent variable) Boring teaching method- (independent variables) Time of the lecturing Heavy diet Psychological issue Physical fitness Mental problems Behavioural patterns
  28. 28. Hypothesis 1 • Science undergraduate students sleep during IL lectures because of conventional method of teaching • Hypothesis 2 • Sleepiness during lectures can be avoided with a self management of behaviour.
  29. 29. Activity 3 • Construct hypotheses on your research problem
  30. 30. Research design/Experimental design • Research design is the conceptual structure in which the investigation can be conducted. • Research design explains how, where, when and with whom the research is conducted.
  31. 31. • Experimental • Non experimental • Quasi or semi experimental
  32. 32. Methodology • Subject: – Details of the population from which the researcher plan to select the sample • Procedures: – Research plan, What will be done. How it will be done. What data will be needed. Data gathering devices • Data analysis: – Details of how to analyze data
  33. 33. Methodology Comparison Quantitative • Explanation, prediction • Test theories • Known variables • Large sample • Standardized instruments • Deductive Qualitative • Explanation, description • Build theories • Unknown variables • Small sample • Observations, interviews • Inductive
  34. 34. Collection of data • Population – Undergraduates of science faculties • Subjects – selected Science undergraduates form IL course • Sampling – Randomly select A sample is a small portion of a population selected for observation and analyses.
  35. 35. Tools of data collection • • • • Tests Observations Questionnaire Interviews
  36. 36. Experimental design • • • • • • • 4 groups Control group Experimental group Treatment Measure Change the variable and measure Record the number of sleeping and frequency
  37. 37. Activity 5 • Design a method/experiment
  38. 38. Organization and analysis of data • grouping and tabulating • analyzing process • qualitative methods • quantitative methods.
  39. 39. Content analysis • • • • Identify the main themes Assign codes to main themes Classify responses Integrate themes and responses
  40. 40. • Quantitative method is mostly used to analyze data in large well designed surveys • ‘SPSS’
  41. 41. Interpretation • Interpretation involves the explaining of findings to arrive at a conclusion. • Here, the researcher explains whether the hypothesis is proved or not. • Researcher can verify the hypothesis, reject it or modify it and do the research again if necessary.
  42. 42. Attributes of Research • Research is directed towards a solution of a problem • Research emphasizes the development of generalization • Research is based upon observable experiences or empirical evidence • Research demands accurate observation and description
  43. 43. • Research involves gathering new data from primary or firsthand sources or using existing data for a new purposes • It is often characterized by carefully designed procedures • Research requires expertise • Research strives to be objective and logical • Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems • Research is characterized by patient and unhurried activity
  44. 44. • • • • • • • • • • Research is carefully recorded and reported Research sometimes requires courage Originates with a question or problem. Requires clear articulation of a goal. Follows a specific plan or procedure. Often divides main problem into sub problems. Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis. Accepts certain critical assumptions. Requires collection and interpretation of data. Cyclical (helical) in nature.
  45. 45. Research Proposal
  46. 46. Research proposal • Preparation of a research proposal is an important step in the research process. • It Is a basis for evaluation of the project • Systematic plan or procedure to follow • Structure of the proposal depends on the nature of the research • Seven parts proposal is typical not compulsory
  47. 47. Writing a research proposal • Statement of the problem • Significance of the problem • Definitions, Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations • Review of related literature • Hypotheses/objectives/research questions • Methodology • Time schedule
  48. 48. • The statement of the problem may be derivative statement but may be in a question form • Gives direction to the research • Problems can be derived from a theory • Can be a prior research results • Personal observations • Experiences Eg.Effect of ‘Kuppi Classes’ for the improvement of performance level of engineering undergraduates .
  49. 49. Significance of the problem • Researcher points out how the solution to the problem can influence the society. • Justify the worthiness of the study • Background information may be useful here
  50. 50. • The findings of the study will be beneficial to undergraduates, librarians, and administration of the university. If the Kuppi is effective, librarians can facilitate the students with study places and essential resources. If it is not effective academics and librarians can launch programmes to convince and encourage students to follow effective methods of learning.
  51. 51. Definitions, Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations • Define the terms that could be misinterpreted • Assumption are statements what the believes to be fact but cannot verify. • Limitations are those conditions beyond control of the researcher. • Delimitations are the boundaries of the study.
  52. 52. Definitions • Kuppi Kuppi is a type of studying techniques used by college students. Similar term used for cramming in universities. • Performance level the term Performance level here refers to the score of marks in semester examinations.
  53. 53. Assumptions • Some group discussions among students were similar to Kuppi. Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish kuppi from group studies.
  54. 54. Limitations • Group discussions among students were not considered as Kuppi in this study because group discussion is one of accepted effective study techniques.
  55. 55. Delimitations • This study involves the Kuppi activities of engineering students of UR only. • Only first year and final students were selected.
  56. 56. Review of related literature • Summary of previous research • What is already known and what is still unknown and untested • Provides a background for the study • Make the reader aware of status of the issue Literature review is a valuable guide to defining the problem, recognizing its significance, suggesting data gathering devices, appropriate study design, and formulating hypothesis.
  57. 57. Hypothesis H1 Kuppi classes among undergraduate students can make a significant effect on MCQ papers than essay type papers. H2 Systematic learning is more significant in earning higher GPA than Kuppi learning among engineering undergraduates.
  58. 58. • The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether ‘Kuppi’ classes can make a significant effect on the achievement of higher score in examinations. • Supportive objectives: • Explore who engage in Kuppi classes • Explore the contents of Kuppi classes • Calculate the score of marks in exams who engage in Kuppi classes • Compare and contrast the score of Kuppi- engaged students and non Kuppi- engaged students.
  59. 59. Methodologies Experimental design • Sample will be selected from first year and final year students from the faculty of engineering of UR. • Sample is divided into 2 categories : First year and final • Each category will be divided into two groups: control and experimental Control group Experimental group First year First year Final year Final year
  60. 60. • Pre-test All four groups will be given two question papers MCQ and essay type relevant to their level of subject coverage. • Treatment Control groups will be exposed to systematic and activity based learning process Experimental groups will be exposed to Kuppi learning process • Post-test All four groups will be tested with a MCQ paper and essay type paper relevant to their level of subjects.
  61. 61. Specially funding agencies require a well planed research proposal before granting the fund. There are several parts in a typical research proposal although not compulsory. The proposal should be well planed so that the funding agency can be convinced the importance of the project
  62. 62. Submitting a research proposal for funding • • • • • • • • • • The title page Abstract Table of contents Introduction Research Methodology Institutional resources Budget Anticipated results Limitations of the study Back matters
  63. 63. Research report
  64. 64. Preparation of the Research report • After you conducting the research you have to communicate your finding with the relevant community. • Writing the research report is the last and (for many people) the most difficult step in the research process. The purpose of the research report is to inform the world about what you have done, how you have done it, and what you have discovered.
  65. 65. • Following factors are important to consider when you write the research report: – Value of the content – Organization of the content – Structure of presenting ideas – Language and style
  66. 66. your research report is based on following questions. • What was the research problem? • Why is this problem important? • How does your project relate to the context of other research? • How did you investigate the research problem? • What are your findings? • What do these findings tell you? • What do you conclude?
  67. 67. Front matter – – – – – – Title page Acknowledgements Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Body of the report – – – – – – Introduction Literature review Methodology Results Discussion Conclusions End matter – Reference list/bibliography /Endnotes – Appendices
  68. 68. Title page • The title of your report should be concise and informative. • It should not be vague and general but should encapsulate the essence of the research. • The title is generally given on a separate page together with your name, course and instructor details
  69. 69. Acknowledgement • To thank anyone whose support has been important for your work. • The supervisor generally receives the first vote of thanks. • Don’t forget your participants (Though remember confidentiality) • This section is the least bound by convention. • You may speak from the heart.
  70. 70. Abstract • The abstract is a precise summary of the whole report. – Non technical summary – A brief overview of the whole report – What did you do and why (problem and why it is important) – How you did (Methodology) – What you found out (Major results) – What was the significations (conclusion/recommendations)
  71. 71. Table of Contents • Lists all major divisions and subdivisions marked by numbers and indicates which page they are on. • The titles and subtitles of sections should appear in a style and size consistent with their position in the hierarchy (see style manuals for help in selecting your system). Numbering hierarchy: –1 • 1.1 • 1.1.1 •
  72. 72. Lists of Tables / Figures / Illustrations / Appendices • Lists all of the above if available and the page No.s on which they appear. • A separate section is used for each of these categories • It is often handy to number such items using the chapter number first: eg, Fig 1.1, Fig. 2.1, Fig.2.2, Table 1.2 etc.
  73. 73. Introduction • • • • Provide contextual information to the problem Introduce the objectives Identify specific research questions Discuss the topic and illustrate the theoretical points • Outline your general arguments • You can indicate the structure of the rest of the report
  74. 74. Literature review • • • • • • • • A discussion of findings of other researchers Critical appraisal of other theories You can compare and asses other’s results Provide external context for your research Justify your project Should be structured thematically May have a number of sub-sections Highlight similarities and differences
  75. 75. Methodology • Details of methods and procedures • Discuss the reasons for choosing the particular methods and procedures • Explore the scope and limitations of the method • Hypotheses • Study area • How the population was selected • Explain how data was collected/generated • Explain how data was analyzed • Explain methodological problems if any
  76. 76. Results • you may indicate the data and findings which were analyzed and ordered according to your methodology. • Tables and figures can be used to further describe the results. • it provides the reader with a factual account of your findings
  77. 77. Discussion – interpret and explain your results; – examine whether and how the questions raised in the introduction section have been answered – Show how your results relate to the literature – Qualify and explore the theoretical importance/significance of your results – Outline any new research questions or areas for future research that your results have suggested. – develop a logical argument about what your results mean – compare with results of previous research – discuss the shortcomings of the research/methodology
  78. 78. Conclusion • Restatement of the research problem/question • Return to the objectives and describe whether they have achieved • Indicate what has been learnt from the study • How findings can be applied • Future possibilities • Suggestions
  79. 79. Reference list/bibliography /Endnotes •The reference list should be arranged in alphabetical order and should use a referencing system which ensures the consistency of elements. • Should not include works you found of no use
  80. 80. Thank you