SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 32
Download to read offline
TSL 3113
Action Research 1
T0PIC 2:
An Introduction to Research Methods in
Education
MUNIRAHBT HASHIM
N0RAIN BT ABDUL MANAF
AL SAMIHAHAMNI BT D0LLAH@ABD.AZIZ
Content:
 Qualitative
– Ethnography
– Case study
– Historical
 Quantitative
– Experimental
– Quasi-experimental
– Survey
– Correlational
Approaches
in
Research
Qualitative approach:
• The approach usually associated with the social constructivist
paradigm which emphasises the socially constructed nature of
reality.
• It is about recording, analysing and attempting to uncover the
deeper meaning and significance of human behaviour and
experience, including contradictory beliefs,
behaviours and emotions.
Qualitative approach:
• It can describe events, persons and so forth scientifically
without the use of numerical data.
• It is harder, more stressful and more time-consuming than
other types.
Qualitative approach:
• Concerned with collecting and analysing information in as
many forms.
• Qualitative research is empirical research where the data are
not in the form of numbers. (Punch, 1998: 4)
Qualitative approach:
• Qualitative implies a direct concern with experience as it is
`lived' or `felt' or `undergone' ...
• Qualitative research, then, has the aim of understanding
experience as nearly as possible as its participants feel it or
live it.
Ely et al (Sherman and Webb ,1988)
• Qualitative implies a direct concern with experience as it is
`lived' or `felt' or `undergone' ...
• Qualitative research, then, has the aim of understanding
experience as nearly as possible as its participants feel it or
live it.
Ely et al (Sherman and Webb ,1988)
Ethnography
• The study of social interactions, behaviours, and perceptions that occur within
groups, teams, organisations, and communities.
• The central aim of ethnography is to provide rich, holistic insights into people’s
views and actions, as well as the nature (that is, sights, sounds) of the location
they inhabit, through the collection of detailed observations and interviews.
The key features of ethnographic research.
Space—Physical layout of the place(s)
Actor—Range of people involved
Activity—A set of related activities that occur
Object—The physical things that are present
Act—Single actions people undertake
Event—Activities that people carry out
Time—The sequencing of events that occur
Goal—Things that people are trying to accomplish
Feeling—Emotions felt and expressed
Nine observational dimensions
Space— Physical layout of the place(s)
Actor— Range of people involved
Activity— A set of related activities that occur
Object— The physical things that are present
Act— Single actions people undertake
Event— Activities that people carry out
Time— The sequencing of events that occur
Goal— Things that people are trying to accomplish
Feeling— Emotions felt and expressed
Ethnography
Purpose - to describe a culture's characteristics
Method
•Identify culture, variables for study, & review literature
•Data collection - gain entrance to culture; immerse self in culture;
acquire informants; gather data through direct observation &
interaction with subjects
Analysis - describe characteristics of culture
Outcomes - description of culture
Case study
• The in depth analysis of a single or small number of units
• A case study unit may include a single person, a group of people, an organisation or an institution
• Case study research ranges in its complexity:
– From a simple, illustrative description of a single event or occurrence
– To a more complex analysis of a social situation over a period of time
– To the most complex approach which is an extended case study which traces events involving the same actors over a period of time -
enabling the analysis reflect changes and adjustments
• Case studies aims to:
– Offer a richness and depth of information by capturing as many variables as possible to identify how a complex set of circumstances come
together to produce a particular manifestation '...to as identify how a complex set of circumstances come together to produce a particular
manifestation.'
• Case study as a method is very versatile, as it uses many methods of gather information, from observation to interview to testing
• One of the criticisms of the case study method is that the case under study may not be representative of a wider social setting and therefore it is
argued that the results of the research cannot be used to make generalisations
• Therefore, the purpose of case study research is to describe that particular case in detail and take learning from that and develop theory from that
approach - it is particularlistic and contextual
The qualitative methods described below are all likely to be used in case study research.
•Participant Observation. This involves the researcher immersing him or herself in the daily lives and routines of those being
studied. This often requires extensive work in the setting being studied. This is called fieldwork. Observation provides insight
into the behavior patterns and social organizations that operate and constitute a particular bounded system or case.
•Interviewing. Researchers will learn about the person or persons that are part of the case by speaking with these
people. Talking with informants is called interviewing. The types of interviews conducted by researchers vary in degree
of formality (informal interview to semi-structured to structured interviews).
•Collection of Artifacts and Texts. Researchers may also learn about a bounded system by collecting and studying artifacts (e.g.
written protocols, charts, flowsheets, educational handouts) - materials used by members of the system or case being studied.
Case study
Purpose - describe in-depth the experience of one
person, family, group, community, or institution
Method
•Direct observation and interaction with subject
Analysis - synthesis of experience
Outcomes - in-depth description of the experience
Historical
'The systematic collection and objective
evaluation of data related to past occurrences in
order to test hypotheses concerning causes,
effects or trends of these events that may help
to explain present events and anticipate future
events' (Gay, 1996)Historical
Purpose - describe and examine events of
the past to understand the present and
anticipate potential future effects
Method
•Formulate idea - select topic after
reading related literature
•Develop research questions
•Develop an inventory of sources -
archives, private libraries, papers
Quantitative approach:
• Involves collecting and converting data into numerical form
so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions
drawn.
• Quantitative approaches have been seen as more scientific and
`objective'.
Quantitative approach:
• Quantitative research consists of those studies in which the data
concerned can be analysed in terms of numbers.
• Quantitative research is based more directly on its original plans
and its results are more readily analysed and interpreted.
Quantitative approach:
• Concerned with the collection and analysis of data in numeric
form. It tends to emphasize relatively large-scale and representative
sets of data, and is often, falsely in our view, presented or perceived
as being about the gathering of `facts'.
• Quantitative research is empirical research where
the data are in the form of numbers.
Quantitative research
– Experimental
– Quasi-experimental
– Survey
– Correlational
Experimental
• Studies that make use of both experimental
approaches and statistical analyses of
quantitative data. This includes comparison of
experimental and control groups, and formal,
systematic measurement of quantities, with
the aim of determining the relationship
between variables.
• Experimental designs are said to be the approach for obtaining information about
• causal relationships (Robson, 1993), allowing researchers to assess the
• correlation (relationship) between one variable and another. A principle factor of
• such designs is that one element is manipulated by the researcher to see
• whether it has any impact upon another. The element being manipulated by
• researchers (e.g. introducing a teenage pregnancy preventative intervention) is
• known as the independent variable, whereas the change (or outcome) resulting
• from the implementation of the independent variable (e.g. teenage pregnancy
• rates) is the dependent variable.
Quasi-experimental
Quasi-experiment refers to studies in which participants are not randomised to
conditions. In this type of design, researchers do not have complete control of
independent variables because the intervention is already in place, or because it
is impossible or ethical to manipulate the variable (e.g. when measuring the
effects of smoking on people’s health, it would be unethical to randomise people
to a smoking or non-smoking group). Researchers rely on existing populations
(e.g. people already smoking versus those who do not smoke). Hence, a control
group is included, but individuals are not randomly allocated to condition; usually
groups are naturally occurring (e.g. people in a part of the country where a new
service has been established compared to individuals in another part of the
country where the service has not been set up).
The problem with such designs is that any differences between two groups are
harder to control for, giving less certainty of the cause and effect relationship. But
for many studies this may be the only design option available. Therefore, it is the
researcher’s task to “tease out the threats to valid inferences about causation
present…and to evaluate how far these threats can be discontinued in a
particular study, taking into account the specific features of the study and the
pattern of results obtained” (Robson, 1993: 46-7).
Examples include
 Pre and Post-test designs
 With comparison group/groups
 Comparison treatments/removal of treatment/
 Post-test only
 With one group/with comparison group
 Interrupted time-series designs
 Simple
 No-treatment comparison group
Survey
Surveys are the primary method of quantitative research – research with some claim to statistical accuracy. There are several types of surveys – and several
key considerations within each. This segment will discuss two important factors in surveying – sampling and return rate – and give short descriptions of
survey types – with pros, cons, and cautions. The next segment will discuss questionnaire design.
•Types of Surveys
•There are four basic types of surveys: 1) mail, 2) telephone, 3) online, and 4) in person. In addition, some of these might be self-administered or done by
interviewers. There are also “hybrid” techniques. Each format is the most appropriate in a given circumstance.
•Mail Surveys. Mail surveys are paper and pencil instruments that are mailed to respondents. They are self-administered by the recipient, which means
there is little control over the feedback. However, they are the most convenient for respondents, who can complete them in the place and time of their
choosing. Mail surveys are best for the collection of sensitive information, because they provide anonymity for the respondent. They provide the best
opportunities for both random samples and targeted random samples. They are the least expensive way to collect data from large numbers of people.
•Telephone Surveys. Surveys by telephone might be conducted by trained interviewers or by automated systems. Data collected through telephone
surveys usually has minimal missing or erroneous data, primarily because it offers the opportunity for personal assistance. New automated random dialing
systems increase the “randomness of the sample,” although only people with telephones are included in the sample. Telephone surveys offer a good
opportunity to reach “low incidence” respondents – populations of people that are very small within general population. They also allow for relatively
quick data collection. New IVR (Interactive Voice Response) provides researchers with the opportunity to branch – take respondents to questions based on
previous responses – and otherwise customize the survey.
•Computer/Online Surveys. Surveys can also be administered by computer and the Internet. All provide the potential to conduct complicated research
because “help menus” can assist respondents through the survey. You can also include visual aids or images as part of these surveys. And perhaps most
importantly, they are the least expensive format and have the quickest speed of data collection and reporting. In addition they offer technical advantages,
such as control of order bias, etc. The most convenient type of computer/online survey is the Disk by Mail DBM) survey. These are self-administered, with
respondents pre-recruited. They allow respondents to work at their own pace and to find answers to questions, such as brand names or number of
utensils, as needed. Surveys (CATI) with similar features can be administered by computer – with keyboard, touch screen, electronic pen, or voice-activated
response. Computerized surveys administered from a central location (CASI) offer all the same benefits. The downside of computer/online surveys is the
skewed or limited sampling. Only participants with access to computers outside the work environment can be reasonably be expected to respond. This
sample is further limited by technophobes, who either won’t respond or who have so many problems their data is unusable.
•Hybrid Methods. You can combine any of the methods – and additional technologies – to help you get better, faster, and more responses. The most
common ones are Telephone – Mail – Telephone (TMT), in which you recruit, screen, instruct respondents by phone and then send them a survey. They
can either mail the questionnaire back or call an interviewer. The same method can be used with a fax machine or computer. Online bulletin boards are
another hybrid method. Respondents are recruited, screened, and instructed by phone and then respond online – often to comments by other
respondents as well as survey questions.
Correlational
The purpose of correlational research is to determine the relations among two or more variables. Data are gathered from multiple variables and
correlational statistical techniques are then applied to the data. Thus correlational research is a bit more complicated than descriptive research; after the
important variables have been identified, the relations among those variables are investigated. Correlational research investigates a range of factors,
including the nature of the relationship between two or more variables and the theoretical model that might be developed and tested to explain these
resultant correlations. Correlation does not imply causation. Thus correlational research can only enable the researcher to make weak causal inferences at
best.
Qualitative Approach Quantitative Approach
Scientific method
-Inductive or “bottom up”
-Generate new hypotheses and theory
from data collected.
-Deductive or “top down”
-Test hypothesis and theory with data.
Most common
research objectives
-Description
-Exploration
-Discovery
-Description
-Explanation
-Prediction
Focus
-Wide and deep angle lenses
-Examine the breath and depth of
phenomenon to learn more about
them.
-Narrow-angle lens
-Testing specific hypotheses
Nature of study
- Study behaviour in its natural
environment or context.
- Study behaviour under artificial, controlled
conditions.
Qualitative Approach Quantitative Approach
Form of data
collected
-Collect narrative data using semi or
unstructured instruments (open-
ended surveys, interviews,
observation, focus groups,
documents)
-Collect numeric data using structured and
validated instruments (close-ended survey
items, rating scales, measurable behaviours)
Nature of data
-Words, images, themes, and
categories
-Numeric variables
Data analysis
-Holistically identify patterns,
categories and themes
-Identify statistical relationships
Results
- Particularistic findings.
-In-depth understanding of
respondent’s viewpoint.
-Respondent framed results
-Generalizable findings.
-General understanding of respondent’s
viewpoint.
-Researcher framed results
Qualitative Approach Quantitative Approach
Form of final report
-Narrative report including contextual
description, categories, themes, and
supporting respondent quotes.
-Statistical report including correlations,
comparisons of means, and statistically
significant findings.
Adapted from:
Johnson & Christensen. (2004). Educational Research: Quantitative, qualitative
and mixes approaches, 2nd
ed. Boston: Ally: Bacon.
QUESTION
AND ANSWER
SESSION
Questions:
1. Why is it important for teachers to do
educational research?
2. What must we do to avoid plagiarism in writing
a research article?
3. What is research ethics and why is it important?
4. What are the importance of informed consent?
5. Why action research is regarded as an
interactive process?
references
David Coghlan & Teresa Brannick. (2005: 11-13). Doing Action Research In
Your Own Words. London: SAGE Publications.
Glenda Nugent, et al. (2012: 4). A Practical Guide to Action Research for
Literacy Educators. Washington: Global Operations Unit.
University of Minnesota. (2003: 8-35). A Guide to Research Ethics.
University of Minnesota: Center for Bioethics.
Alzheimer Europe. (n.d). The Four Main Approaches. Assessed on 2013,
23rd
December, at http://www.alzheimer
europe.org/Research/Understanding-dementia-research/Types-of
research/The-four-main-approaches
Christina Hughes. (n.d). Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Social
Research. Assessed on 2013, 23rd
December, at
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/sociology/staff/academicstaff/chu
ghes/hughesc_index/teachingresearchprocess/quantitativequalitativ
e/quantitativequalitative/
THANK
YOU…

More Related Content

What's hot

Educational research
Educational researchEducational research
Educational researchMukut Deori
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Researchjames duco
 
Meaning and introduction to educational research
Meaning and introduction to educational researchMeaning and introduction to educational research
Meaning and introduction to educational researchQazi GHAFOOR
 
Descriptive research
Descriptive researchDescriptive research
Descriptive researchOmar Jacalne
 
Research in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper II
Research in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper IIResearch in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper II
Research in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper IIThiyagu K
 
Classification of educational research
Classification of educational researchClassification of educational research
Classification of educational researchVinothiniSylvia
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical ResearchChine Mari
 
Research tools & data collection method_vipin
Research tools & data collection method_vipinResearch tools & data collection method_vipin
Research tools & data collection method_vipinVIPIN PATIDAR
 
Qualitative Research Method
 Qualitative Research  Method  Qualitative Research  Method
Qualitative Research Method Kunal Modak
 
Qualitative Research in Education
Qualitative Research in EducationQualitative Research in Education
Qualitative Research in EducationDr. Sarita Anand
 
Research tools in action research
Research tools in action research Research tools in action research
Research tools in action research HennaAnsari
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisjagannath Dange
 
Aims of Research as a Scientific Activity
Aims of Research as a Scientific ActivityAims of Research as a Scientific Activity
Aims of Research as a Scientific ActivitySahin Sahari
 
Educational research need concept and types by purpose
Educational research need concept and types by purposeEducational research need concept and types by purpose
Educational research need concept and types by purposeInam Jahangir
 

What's hot (20)

Fundamental, Applied and Action Research
Fundamental, Applied and Action ResearchFundamental, Applied and Action Research
Fundamental, Applied and Action Research
 
Research in education
Research in educationResearch in education
Research in education
 
Educational research
Educational researchEducational research
Educational research
 
Action research
Action researchAction research
Action research
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
Descriptive research
Descriptive researchDescriptive research
Descriptive research
 
Meaning and introduction to educational research
Meaning and introduction to educational researchMeaning and introduction to educational research
Meaning and introduction to educational research
 
Descriptive research
Descriptive researchDescriptive research
Descriptive research
 
Action research
Action researchAction research
Action research
 
Research in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper II
Research in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper IIResearch in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper II
Research in Education (Unit 6) - UGC NET Education Paper II
 
Classification of educational research
Classification of educational researchClassification of educational research
Classification of educational research
 
Historical Research
Historical ResearchHistorical Research
Historical Research
 
Research tools & data collection method_vipin
Research tools & data collection method_vipinResearch tools & data collection method_vipin
Research tools & data collection method_vipin
 
Qualitative Research Method
 Qualitative Research  Method  Qualitative Research  Method
Qualitative Research Method
 
Qualitative Research in Education
Qualitative Research in EducationQualitative Research in Education
Qualitative Research in Education
 
Research tools in action research
Research tools in action research Research tools in action research
Research tools in action research
 
Qualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysisQualitative data analysis
Qualitative data analysis
 
Case study method in research
Case study method in researchCase study method in research
Case study method in research
 
Aims of Research as a Scientific Activity
Aims of Research as a Scientific ActivityAims of Research as a Scientific Activity
Aims of Research as a Scientific Activity
 
Educational research need concept and types by purpose
Educational research need concept and types by purposeEducational research need concept and types by purpose
Educational research need concept and types by purpose
 

Viewers also liked

Why do we (teachers) need research?
Why do we (teachers) need research?Why do we (teachers) need research?
Why do we (teachers) need research?Joseph Anbarasu
 
Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?
Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?
Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?Emma Kirkpatrick
 
PDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research Designs
PDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research DesignsPDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research Designs
PDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research DesignsAgatha N. Ardhiati
 
Introduction to Educational Research
Introduction to Educational ResearchIntroduction to Educational Research
Introduction to Educational ResearchPedro Martinez
 
Research methods
Research methodsResearch methods
Research methodsComicspedia
 
Research Method.ppt
Research Method.pptResearch Method.ppt
Research Method.pptShama
 
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH Nardin A
 
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and MethodsResearch Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and MethodsAhmed-Refat Refat
 

Viewers also liked (11)

Educational Research
Educational ResearchEducational Research
Educational Research
 
Chapter1
Chapter1Chapter1
Chapter1
 
Why do we (teachers) need research?
Why do we (teachers) need research?Why do we (teachers) need research?
Why do we (teachers) need research?
 
Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?
Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?
Through the keyhole: why do we need research on research?
 
C++ examples &revisions
C++ examples &revisionsC++ examples &revisions
C++ examples &revisions
 
PDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research Designs
PDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research DesignsPDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research Designs
PDU 211 Research Methods: Mixed-Methods & Action Research Designs
 
Introduction to Educational Research
Introduction to Educational ResearchIntroduction to Educational Research
Introduction to Educational Research
 
Research methods
Research methodsResearch methods
Research methods
 
Research Method.ppt
Research Method.pptResearch Method.ppt
Research Method.ppt
 
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
 
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and MethodsResearch Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
Research Methods: Basic Concepts and Methods
 

Similar to An Introduction to Research Methods in Education

Research Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdf
Research Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdfResearch Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdf
Research Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdfssusercf9767
 
types of research
types of research types of research
types of research aqsababar3
 
Research approaches and methods
Research approaches and methodsResearch approaches and methods
Research approaches and methodsBoutkhil Guemide
 
Research type on the basis of nature
Research type on the basis of natureResearch type on the basis of nature
Research type on the basis of natureChanak Trikhatri
 
Qualitative research in Nursing
Qualitative research in NursingQualitative research in Nursing
Qualitative research in NursingDhara Vyas
 
The scientific method
The scientific methodThe scientific method
The scientific methodGreg Kleponis
 
Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2
Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2
Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2akoeljames8543
 
Quantitative and qualitative research
Quantitative and qualitative researchQuantitative and qualitative research
Quantitative and qualitative researchdhinnar
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptx
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptxFUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptx
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptxPRIYANKAROY129
 
Research made easy.pptx
Research made easy.pptxResearch made easy.pptx
Research made easy.pptxMaukiRichard2
 
Lecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdf
Lecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdfLecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdf
Lecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdfSaubanAhmed1
 
casestudy.ppt
casestudy.pptcasestudy.ppt
casestudy.pptMrShavkat
 
Research Methodology and Approaches
Research Methodology and ApproachesResearch Methodology and Approaches
Research Methodology and Approachesiosrjce
 
Research methodology Chapter 2
Research methodology Chapter 2Research methodology Chapter 2
Research methodology Chapter 2Pulchowk Campus
 

Similar to An Introduction to Research Methods in Education (20)

Research Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdf
Research Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdfResearch Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdf
Research Methodology by Dr. Jatinder Kumar.pdf
 
types of research
types of research types of research
types of research
 
Research approaches and methods
Research approaches and methodsResearch approaches and methods
Research approaches and methods
 
Research type on the basis of nature
Research type on the basis of natureResearch type on the basis of nature
Research type on the basis of nature
 
Research Methodology
Research MethodologyResearch Methodology
Research Methodology
 
Qualitative research in Nursing
Qualitative research in NursingQualitative research in Nursing
Qualitative research in Nursing
 
The scientific method
The scientific methodThe scientific method
The scientific method
 
Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2
Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2
Study designs 2.pptx community health nursing 2
 
Research
ResearchResearch
Research
 
Research methodology part 1
Research methodology  part 1Research methodology  part 1
Research methodology part 1
 
Research methodology part 1
Research methodology  part 1Research methodology  part 1
Research methodology part 1
 
CHAPTER 2 RDL 1.pptx
CHAPTER 2 RDL 1.pptxCHAPTER 2 RDL 1.pptx
CHAPTER 2 RDL 1.pptx
 
Quantitative and qualitative research
Quantitative and qualitative researchQuantitative and qualitative research
Quantitative and qualitative research
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptx
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptxFUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptx
FUNDAMENTALS OF CLINICAL REASEARCH.pptx
 
RESEARCH 1 & 2
RESEARCH 1 & 2RESEARCH 1 & 2
RESEARCH 1 & 2
 
Research made easy.pptx
Research made easy.pptxResearch made easy.pptx
Research made easy.pptx
 
Lecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdf
Lecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdfLecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdf
Lecture 1 - Qualitative - Introduction.pdf
 
casestudy.ppt
casestudy.pptcasestudy.ppt
casestudy.ppt
 
Research Methodology and Approaches
Research Methodology and ApproachesResearch Methodology and Approaches
Research Methodology and Approaches
 
Research methodology Chapter 2
Research methodology Chapter 2Research methodology Chapter 2
Research methodology Chapter 2
 

More from El Sameeha

Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...
Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...
Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...El Sameeha
 
FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES
FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES
FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES El Sameeha
 
Characteristic of effective teachers
Characteristic of effective teachersCharacteristic of effective teachers
Characteristic of effective teachersEl Sameeha
 
Cognitive, Humanistic approach on motivation
Cognitive, Humanistic approach on motivationCognitive, Humanistic approach on motivation
Cognitive, Humanistic approach on motivationEl Sameeha
 
Jean piaget (1896 1980)
Jean piaget (1896 1980) Jean piaget (1896 1980)
Jean piaget (1896 1980) El Sameeha
 
A Question of Dowries by Siew Yue Killingly
A Question of Dowries by Siew Yue KillinglyA Question of Dowries by Siew Yue Killingly
A Question of Dowries by Siew Yue KillinglyEl Sameeha
 
Summative assessment
Summative assessmentSummative assessment
Summative assessmentEl Sameeha
 
Socio cultural diversity
Socio cultural diversitySocio cultural diversity
Socio cultural diversityEl Sameeha
 
Sifat mahmudah ppt
Sifat mahmudah pptSifat mahmudah ppt
Sifat mahmudah pptEl Sameeha
 
Activities for teaching grammar
Activities for teaching grammarActivities for teaching grammar
Activities for teaching grammarEl Sameeha
 
Grammar in isolation vs grammar in context
Grammar in isolation vs grammar in contextGrammar in isolation vs grammar in context
Grammar in isolation vs grammar in contextEl Sameeha
 
listening process
listening processlistening process
listening processEl Sameeha
 
Pronunciation problems of non native speakers of english
Pronunciation problems of non native speakers of englishPronunciation problems of non native speakers of english
Pronunciation problems of non native speakers of englishEl Sameeha
 

More from El Sameeha (16)

Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...
Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...
Selection of raw materials Technical skills and knowledge for producing mater...
 
FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES
FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES
FEATURES OF CHILDREN’S STORIES
 
Characteristic of effective teachers
Characteristic of effective teachersCharacteristic of effective teachers
Characteristic of effective teachers
 
Cognitive, Humanistic approach on motivation
Cognitive, Humanistic approach on motivationCognitive, Humanistic approach on motivation
Cognitive, Humanistic approach on motivation
 
Jean piaget (1896 1980)
Jean piaget (1896 1980) Jean piaget (1896 1980)
Jean piaget (1896 1980)
 
A Question of Dowries by Siew Yue Killingly
A Question of Dowries by Siew Yue KillinglyA Question of Dowries by Siew Yue Killingly
A Question of Dowries by Siew Yue Killingly
 
Social theory
Social theorySocial theory
Social theory
 
Summative assessment
Summative assessmentSummative assessment
Summative assessment
 
Socio cultural diversity
Socio cultural diversitySocio cultural diversity
Socio cultural diversity
 
Sifat mahmudah ppt
Sifat mahmudah pptSifat mahmudah ppt
Sifat mahmudah ppt
 
Activities for teaching grammar
Activities for teaching grammarActivities for teaching grammar
Activities for teaching grammar
 
Grammar in isolation vs grammar in context
Grammar in isolation vs grammar in contextGrammar in isolation vs grammar in context
Grammar in isolation vs grammar in context
 
listening process
listening processlistening process
listening process
 
Ppt zina
Ppt zinaPpt zina
Ppt zina
 
Confucius
ConfuciusConfucius
Confucius
 
Pronunciation problems of non native speakers of english
Pronunciation problems of non native speakers of englishPronunciation problems of non native speakers of english
Pronunciation problems of non native speakers of english
 

Recently uploaded

Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...DrVipulVKapoor
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6Vanessa Camilleri
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceDr Vijay Vishwakarma
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxSayali Powar
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
Geoffrey Chaucer Works II UGC NET JRF TGT PGT MA PHD Entrance Exam II History...
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptxBIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
BIOCHEMISTRY-CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM CHAPTER 2.pptx
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 

An Introduction to Research Methods in Education

  • 1. TSL 3113 Action Research 1 T0PIC 2: An Introduction to Research Methods in Education MUNIRAHBT HASHIM N0RAIN BT ABDUL MANAF AL SAMIHAHAMNI BT D0LLAH@ABD.AZIZ
  • 2. Content:  Qualitative – Ethnography – Case study – Historical  Quantitative – Experimental – Quasi-experimental – Survey – Correlational
  • 4.
  • 5. Qualitative approach: • The approach usually associated with the social constructivist paradigm which emphasises the socially constructed nature of reality. • It is about recording, analysing and attempting to uncover the deeper meaning and significance of human behaviour and experience, including contradictory beliefs, behaviours and emotions.
  • 6. Qualitative approach: • It can describe events, persons and so forth scientifically without the use of numerical data. • It is harder, more stressful and more time-consuming than other types.
  • 7. Qualitative approach: • Concerned with collecting and analysing information in as many forms. • Qualitative research is empirical research where the data are not in the form of numbers. (Punch, 1998: 4)
  • 8. Qualitative approach: • Qualitative implies a direct concern with experience as it is `lived' or `felt' or `undergone' ... • Qualitative research, then, has the aim of understanding experience as nearly as possible as its participants feel it or live it. Ely et al (Sherman and Webb ,1988) • Qualitative implies a direct concern with experience as it is `lived' or `felt' or `undergone' ... • Qualitative research, then, has the aim of understanding experience as nearly as possible as its participants feel it or live it. Ely et al (Sherman and Webb ,1988)
  • 9. Ethnography • The study of social interactions, behaviours, and perceptions that occur within groups, teams, organisations, and communities. • The central aim of ethnography is to provide rich, holistic insights into people’s views and actions, as well as the nature (that is, sights, sounds) of the location they inhabit, through the collection of detailed observations and interviews. The key features of ethnographic research. Space—Physical layout of the place(s) Actor—Range of people involved Activity—A set of related activities that occur Object—The physical things that are present Act—Single actions people undertake Event—Activities that people carry out Time—The sequencing of events that occur Goal—Things that people are trying to accomplish Feeling—Emotions felt and expressed
  • 10. Nine observational dimensions Space— Physical layout of the place(s) Actor— Range of people involved Activity— A set of related activities that occur Object— The physical things that are present Act— Single actions people undertake Event— Activities that people carry out Time— The sequencing of events that occur Goal— Things that people are trying to accomplish Feeling— Emotions felt and expressed
  • 11. Ethnography Purpose - to describe a culture's characteristics Method •Identify culture, variables for study, & review literature •Data collection - gain entrance to culture; immerse self in culture; acquire informants; gather data through direct observation & interaction with subjects Analysis - describe characteristics of culture Outcomes - description of culture
  • 12. Case study • The in depth analysis of a single or small number of units • A case study unit may include a single person, a group of people, an organisation or an institution • Case study research ranges in its complexity: – From a simple, illustrative description of a single event or occurrence – To a more complex analysis of a social situation over a period of time – To the most complex approach which is an extended case study which traces events involving the same actors over a period of time - enabling the analysis reflect changes and adjustments • Case studies aims to: – Offer a richness and depth of information by capturing as many variables as possible to identify how a complex set of circumstances come together to produce a particular manifestation '...to as identify how a complex set of circumstances come together to produce a particular manifestation.' • Case study as a method is very versatile, as it uses many methods of gather information, from observation to interview to testing • One of the criticisms of the case study method is that the case under study may not be representative of a wider social setting and therefore it is argued that the results of the research cannot be used to make generalisations • Therefore, the purpose of case study research is to describe that particular case in detail and take learning from that and develop theory from that approach - it is particularlistic and contextual
  • 13. The qualitative methods described below are all likely to be used in case study research. •Participant Observation. This involves the researcher immersing him or herself in the daily lives and routines of those being studied. This often requires extensive work in the setting being studied. This is called fieldwork. Observation provides insight into the behavior patterns and social organizations that operate and constitute a particular bounded system or case. •Interviewing. Researchers will learn about the person or persons that are part of the case by speaking with these people. Talking with informants is called interviewing. The types of interviews conducted by researchers vary in degree of formality (informal interview to semi-structured to structured interviews). •Collection of Artifacts and Texts. Researchers may also learn about a bounded system by collecting and studying artifacts (e.g. written protocols, charts, flowsheets, educational handouts) - materials used by members of the system or case being studied.
  • 14. Case study Purpose - describe in-depth the experience of one person, family, group, community, or institution Method •Direct observation and interaction with subject Analysis - synthesis of experience Outcomes - in-depth description of the experience
  • 15. Historical 'The systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events' (Gay, 1996)Historical Purpose - describe and examine events of the past to understand the present and anticipate potential future effects Method •Formulate idea - select topic after reading related literature •Develop research questions •Develop an inventory of sources - archives, private libraries, papers
  • 16. Quantitative approach: • Involves collecting and converting data into numerical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn. • Quantitative approaches have been seen as more scientific and `objective'.
  • 17. Quantitative approach: • Quantitative research consists of those studies in which the data concerned can be analysed in terms of numbers. • Quantitative research is based more directly on its original plans and its results are more readily analysed and interpreted.
  • 18. Quantitative approach: • Concerned with the collection and analysis of data in numeric form. It tends to emphasize relatively large-scale and representative sets of data, and is often, falsely in our view, presented or perceived as being about the gathering of `facts'. • Quantitative research is empirical research where the data are in the form of numbers.
  • 19. Quantitative research – Experimental – Quasi-experimental – Survey – Correlational
  • 20. Experimental • Studies that make use of both experimental approaches and statistical analyses of quantitative data. This includes comparison of experimental and control groups, and formal, systematic measurement of quantities, with the aim of determining the relationship between variables. • Experimental designs are said to be the approach for obtaining information about • causal relationships (Robson, 1993), allowing researchers to assess the • correlation (relationship) between one variable and another. A principle factor of • such designs is that one element is manipulated by the researcher to see • whether it has any impact upon another. The element being manipulated by • researchers (e.g. introducing a teenage pregnancy preventative intervention) is • known as the independent variable, whereas the change (or outcome) resulting • from the implementation of the independent variable (e.g. teenage pregnancy • rates) is the dependent variable.
  • 21. Quasi-experimental Quasi-experiment refers to studies in which participants are not randomised to conditions. In this type of design, researchers do not have complete control of independent variables because the intervention is already in place, or because it is impossible or ethical to manipulate the variable (e.g. when measuring the effects of smoking on people’s health, it would be unethical to randomise people to a smoking or non-smoking group). Researchers rely on existing populations (e.g. people already smoking versus those who do not smoke). Hence, a control group is included, but individuals are not randomly allocated to condition; usually groups are naturally occurring (e.g. people in a part of the country where a new service has been established compared to individuals in another part of the country where the service has not been set up). The problem with such designs is that any differences between two groups are harder to control for, giving less certainty of the cause and effect relationship. But for many studies this may be the only design option available. Therefore, it is the researcher’s task to “tease out the threats to valid inferences about causation present…and to evaluate how far these threats can be discontinued in a particular study, taking into account the specific features of the study and the pattern of results obtained” (Robson, 1993: 46-7). Examples include  Pre and Post-test designs  With comparison group/groups  Comparison treatments/removal of treatment/  Post-test only  With one group/with comparison group  Interrupted time-series designs  Simple  No-treatment comparison group
  • 22. Survey Surveys are the primary method of quantitative research – research with some claim to statistical accuracy. There are several types of surveys – and several key considerations within each. This segment will discuss two important factors in surveying – sampling and return rate – and give short descriptions of survey types – with pros, cons, and cautions. The next segment will discuss questionnaire design. •Types of Surveys •There are four basic types of surveys: 1) mail, 2) telephone, 3) online, and 4) in person. In addition, some of these might be self-administered or done by interviewers. There are also “hybrid” techniques. Each format is the most appropriate in a given circumstance. •Mail Surveys. Mail surveys are paper and pencil instruments that are mailed to respondents. They are self-administered by the recipient, which means there is little control over the feedback. However, they are the most convenient for respondents, who can complete them in the place and time of their choosing. Mail surveys are best for the collection of sensitive information, because they provide anonymity for the respondent. They provide the best opportunities for both random samples and targeted random samples. They are the least expensive way to collect data from large numbers of people. •Telephone Surveys. Surveys by telephone might be conducted by trained interviewers or by automated systems. Data collected through telephone surveys usually has minimal missing or erroneous data, primarily because it offers the opportunity for personal assistance. New automated random dialing systems increase the “randomness of the sample,” although only people with telephones are included in the sample. Telephone surveys offer a good opportunity to reach “low incidence” respondents – populations of people that are very small within general population. They also allow for relatively quick data collection. New IVR (Interactive Voice Response) provides researchers with the opportunity to branch – take respondents to questions based on previous responses – and otherwise customize the survey. •Computer/Online Surveys. Surveys can also be administered by computer and the Internet. All provide the potential to conduct complicated research because “help menus” can assist respondents through the survey. You can also include visual aids or images as part of these surveys. And perhaps most importantly, they are the least expensive format and have the quickest speed of data collection and reporting. In addition they offer technical advantages, such as control of order bias, etc. The most convenient type of computer/online survey is the Disk by Mail DBM) survey. These are self-administered, with respondents pre-recruited. They allow respondents to work at their own pace and to find answers to questions, such as brand names or number of utensils, as needed. Surveys (CATI) with similar features can be administered by computer – with keyboard, touch screen, electronic pen, or voice-activated response. Computerized surveys administered from a central location (CASI) offer all the same benefits. The downside of computer/online surveys is the skewed or limited sampling. Only participants with access to computers outside the work environment can be reasonably be expected to respond. This sample is further limited by technophobes, who either won’t respond or who have so many problems their data is unusable. •Hybrid Methods. You can combine any of the methods – and additional technologies – to help you get better, faster, and more responses. The most common ones are Telephone – Mail – Telephone (TMT), in which you recruit, screen, instruct respondents by phone and then send them a survey. They can either mail the questionnaire back or call an interviewer. The same method can be used with a fax machine or computer. Online bulletin boards are another hybrid method. Respondents are recruited, screened, and instructed by phone and then respond online – often to comments by other respondents as well as survey questions.
  • 23. Correlational The purpose of correlational research is to determine the relations among two or more variables. Data are gathered from multiple variables and correlational statistical techniques are then applied to the data. Thus correlational research is a bit more complicated than descriptive research; after the important variables have been identified, the relations among those variables are investigated. Correlational research investigates a range of factors, including the nature of the relationship between two or more variables and the theoretical model that might be developed and tested to explain these resultant correlations. Correlation does not imply causation. Thus correlational research can only enable the researcher to make weak causal inferences at best.
  • 24.
  • 25. Qualitative Approach Quantitative Approach Scientific method -Inductive or “bottom up” -Generate new hypotheses and theory from data collected. -Deductive or “top down” -Test hypothesis and theory with data. Most common research objectives -Description -Exploration -Discovery -Description -Explanation -Prediction Focus -Wide and deep angle lenses -Examine the breath and depth of phenomenon to learn more about them. -Narrow-angle lens -Testing specific hypotheses Nature of study - Study behaviour in its natural environment or context. - Study behaviour under artificial, controlled conditions.
  • 26. Qualitative Approach Quantitative Approach Form of data collected -Collect narrative data using semi or unstructured instruments (open- ended surveys, interviews, observation, focus groups, documents) -Collect numeric data using structured and validated instruments (close-ended survey items, rating scales, measurable behaviours) Nature of data -Words, images, themes, and categories -Numeric variables Data analysis -Holistically identify patterns, categories and themes -Identify statistical relationships Results - Particularistic findings. -In-depth understanding of respondent’s viewpoint. -Respondent framed results -Generalizable findings. -General understanding of respondent’s viewpoint. -Researcher framed results
  • 27. Qualitative Approach Quantitative Approach Form of final report -Narrative report including contextual description, categories, themes, and supporting respondent quotes. -Statistical report including correlations, comparisons of means, and statistically significant findings. Adapted from: Johnson & Christensen. (2004). Educational Research: Quantitative, qualitative and mixes approaches, 2nd ed. Boston: Ally: Bacon.
  • 29. Questions: 1. Why is it important for teachers to do educational research? 2. What must we do to avoid plagiarism in writing a research article? 3. What is research ethics and why is it important? 4. What are the importance of informed consent? 5. Why action research is regarded as an interactive process?
  • 31. David Coghlan & Teresa Brannick. (2005: 11-13). Doing Action Research In Your Own Words. London: SAGE Publications. Glenda Nugent, et al. (2012: 4). A Practical Guide to Action Research for Literacy Educators. Washington: Global Operations Unit. University of Minnesota. (2003: 8-35). A Guide to Research Ethics. University of Minnesota: Center for Bioethics. Alzheimer Europe. (n.d). The Four Main Approaches. Assessed on 2013, 23rd December, at http://www.alzheimer europe.org/Research/Understanding-dementia-research/Types-of research/The-four-main-approaches Christina Hughes. (n.d). Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Social Research. Assessed on 2013, 23rd December, at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/sociology/staff/academicstaff/chu ghes/hughesc_index/teachingresearchprocess/quantitativequalitativ e/quantitativequalitative/