Research Process– The Research Problem– Formulation of Research Objectives– Review of Related Literature– Delimitation of the Research Problem– Formulation of Testable Hypothesis– Identification of Research Variables– Construction of Research Design– Designing Tools for Data Collection– Designing Plan for Data Analysis– Collection of Data– Data Processing– Data Analysis and Interpretation– Drawing Conclusions and Recommendations– Writing of Research Report– Reporting of Research Findings
• Do environmentally-relevant concentrations of diclofenac in freshwater systems exhibit embryotoxic and stress protein (hsp 70) responses to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos?
FORMULATION OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES• Reflect the questions whose answers the investigator wants the study to yield.• Can be expressed either in the form of a statement or a question• Serve as the “steering wheel” in the conduct of a research project.
• Serve as guides in specifying the variables of the study, the choice of the research design to be used, the data to be collected, as well as the interpretation of the results.The study will determine the relationship between sulfur dioxide levels and the rate of photosynthesis among resistant species of grasses.
Characteristics of Research Objectives• Phrased clearly, unambiguously, and specifically• Stated in measurable terms and should not involve value judgment
Objective• to study diarrhea• to determine the role of infant feeding in diarrhea• to compare the incidence of diarrhea between bottle, breast-fed, and mixed-fed infant
Objective• To study the effect of neem tree extract• To investigate the histological effects of neem seed kernel extract on mouse testis
• General Objective: a generic statement which describes in broad terms what the study wishes to accomplish.• Specific Objectives: contain indicators on how to accomplish the stated objectives and therefore, gives direction to the research process; identifies in detail and measureable terms the aims of the research study.
HOW DO YOU FORMULATE YOUR OBJECTIVES?GENERAL OBJECTIVE• summarize what is to be achieved by the study.• should be closely related to the research question.• EXAMPLE: – Problem: low utilization of child protection units (CPUs) – General Objective: to identify the reasons for this low utilization
HOW DO YOU FORMULATE YOUROBJECTIVES? SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE – smaller, logically connected parts of a general objective – should systematically address the various aspects (dimensions) of the general objective – should specify what you will do in your study, where and for what purpose.
General Objectives:To investigate the histological effects of neem seed kernel extract on mouse testisSpecific Objectives:1. To identify the changes in testes histology due to neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) exposure.2. To determine the relationship between neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) and occurrence of abnormal sperm morphology.3. To provide a feasible physiological basis for the anti-libido property of neem extract.
Objective• General objective1. To document plants used by Aeta as repellents against hematophagous insects• Specific objective1. To identify plants used by Aeta as repellents against hematophagous insects2. To determine which parts of the plants are used for such purpose3. To determine the mode of application and frequency of use of these plants
SAMPLE OBJECTIVES• GENERAL: To evaluate if home-based care (CHBC) projects in Zimbabwe provide adequate, affordable and sustainable care of good quality to people with HIV/AIDS, and to identify ways in which these services can be improved• SPECIFIC – To identify the full range of economic, psychosocial, health/nursing care and other needs of patients and their families affected by AIDS. – To determine the extent to which formal and informal support systems address these needs from the viewpoint of service providers as well as patients. – To determine the economic costs of CHBC to the patient and family as well as to the formal CHBC programmes themselves. – To relate the calculated costs to the quality of care provided to the patient by the family and to the family/patient by the CHBC programme.
WORDS TO AVOID• To know• To understand• To really understand• To fully appreciate• To internalize• To grasp the significance of• To have an awareness of
FORMULATION OF TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS• Hypothesis Definition• A tentative explanation for certain phenomena, or events which have occurred or will occur (Gay,1976)• States the researcher’s expectations concerning the relationship between two or more variables in the research problem• Testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables (McGuigan, 1978)
Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis• Stated in declarative form• Stated in definite terms, the relationship between variables• Should reflect the theory or literature that it is based on• Should be brief and to the point• Should be testable.
Two Types of HypothesisNull Hypothesis• Ho• Never true or established but can be possibly disproved in the course of the experimentation• Always a statement of _____________• No difference relationship between the variables we want to study• May act as a starting point and as a benchmark against which the researcher will measure the actual outcome of the study once the researcher has collected the data.
Research Hypothesis• HA• Alternative hypothesis• Relationship is always positive• Statement of ______________.
• Examples:• Ho : Vitamin C does not inhibit chromosomal lagging.• HA : Vitamin C does inhibit chromosomal lagging by 50% compared to placebo.• Ho : Cerebral artery bypass is as effective as standard medical therapy• HA : Cerebral artery bypass is more effective than standard medical therapy.
• Two Types of Research Hypothesis – Non-directional – reflects a difference between groups, but the direction of the difference (unequal) is NOT specified. – Directional – reflects a difference between groups and the difference is specified.
IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH VARIABLES• Variable – any trait/characteristic that manifest differences irrespective of whether the differences are qualitative or quantitative.• Qualitative – eye color, shape of teeth, sex• Quantitative – weight, height, length, light intensity, temperature
Types of Variables:Independent – the treatment variable - _________ in the course of an experiment in an effort to understand the effects of this manipulation on some outcome (which you know as the dependent variable) - the variable which is presumed to cause, effect, influence, or stimulate the outcome.Dependent – outcome variables in a research study - refers to the outcome or response variableExtraneous Variable – by themselves produce changes which may be mistaken to be the effect of the independent variable being considered. - Controlled, held constant or randomized – so the effects are neutralized, cancelled out or equated for all conditions.
INTRODUCTION• BACKGROUND/ RATIONALE• OBJECTIVES• HYPOTHESIS• SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY• LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYDeadline on December 2
• Saccharum spontaneum flavonoid as a potential food preservative• Flavonoid as preservative• Flavonoid