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social science research methodology 1


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notes prepared for MSW

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social science research methodology 1

  2. 2. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Questions • • • • • • Introduction What is research Social science research or social work research? Propose of SR What we can do with research Recent Trends in Social Science Research
  3. 3. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • Sciences are broadly divided into natural and social science • Social science includes various disciplines dealing with human life ,behavior, social groups and social institution • They consists of anthropology, behavioral sciences,commmerce,demogrphy,economics,edu cation,geography,history,law,legislation,;linguist ics,management,political sciences, psychology, public administration ,sociology and social work
  4. 4. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • Social sciences are not exact sciences like physical sciences. it always deals with human nature and environment and which is so complex. no one person is consistent from one moment to another. • A controlled experiment is not possible in social sciences but it is sine qua non of empirical sciences ( how the discipline gathered information?)
  5. 5. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Four Methods ( Knowledge Gathering) • Research is intended to bring knowledge • For this knowledge accumulation 1)tradition, 2)authority, 3)practical wisdom,4)problem solving methods were applied (check)
  6. 6. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Problem solving method Phase-1 Defining problem Phase -4 Evaluation Reserach Phase-3 Implementation Phase-2 Determining Solution
  7. 7. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • Discussing Research in this context • What you think about Research? • Qualities required to become a reseracher? (your thoughts) good
  8. 8. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Research • Composed of two words re and search • Again, or over again/closely, carefully, to test or to probe • A noun describing a careful and systematic study in some field of knowledge undertaken to establish facts or principles
  9. 9. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • Research is a structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable
  10. 10. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Research( Defined as ) • “Research is an Endeavour to discover, develop and verify knowledge –Rumnell • Scientific research is a systematic and objective effort to offer solutions to problems • Research invokes cause and effect relationships and helps to formulate policies and programmes
  11. 11. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • “it is systematic and objective attempt to study a problem for the purpose of deriving general principles” (Theodorson & Theodorson) • “It is systematic investigation to find solutions to a problem”. Robert Burns
  12. 12. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Social Science Research • It is systematic method of exploring analyzing and conceptualizing human life in order to extend ,corrector verify knowledge of human behavior and social life .it seeks to find explanations to unexplained social phenomena ,to clarify the doubtful and misconceived facts of social life . correct the
  13. 13. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Objectives of Research • • • • To discover new facts Verify and test old facts To understand human behavior To know connection between human activities and natural laws • To develop new scientific tools concepts and theories –Extend the area of knowledge
  14. 14. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • To understand the functioning of the society. • To study individual behavior and social action. • To evaluate social problems ,their effects, solution • To explore social reality • To develop theories ( Tasks :Read Theories)
  15. 15. BMT-LISSAH • • • • • • • • • • Becker 1989,Sarantokos 1998 General goals Theoretical goals Pragmatic goals Political goals Mahr (1995)- Educational Personal Institutional Political Tactical 2/20/2012
  16. 16. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Scope of social science research • • • • The fields are unlimited Every phase of social phenomena Every phase of human life Every stage of past and present development are materials for the Social scientist • Interdisciplinary approach (Identify areas)
  17. 17. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Limitation of SS research • • • • • • Scientist : Complexity of the subject matter Human problems /refusal of respondents Personal values Anthropomorphization Wrong decisions
  18. 18. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Can be viewed as •A systematic and scientific study of a phenomenon to create new knowledge or to increase existing fund of knowledge.
  19. 19. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • Activity undertaken with personal need or purpose is not consider as research. • Research oriented, shall be scientific, library
  20. 20. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • Royce A Singleton “ Scientific* Social Research consists of the process of formulating and seeking answers to questions about the social world.” • *What is Mean By A Scientific Method???
  21. 21. End of Part -1
  22. 22. BMT-LISSAH Steps • • • • • • • • Theodorson & Theodorson(1969) defining Problem stating the Problem Devise hypothesis Data collecting procedure Gathering data Analyzing data conclusions 2/20/2012
  23. 23. BMT-LISSAH • • • • • 2/20/2012 Kenneth D Bailey (1982) Choosing research problem & stating hypothesis Formulating the research design Analyzing the data interpreting the results
  24. 24. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Basic Steps in Research Hypothesis Data collection Curiosity Testing Hypothesis Causal observation Event inferences Practical application prediction
  25. 25. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Research Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Selection of Problem Review of Literature Formulating Hypothesis/Objectives Preparing a Research Design Data Collection Analysis of Data Conclusions/Suggestions Research Report Assignment Supply Format for Proposal and Start work on that)
  27. 27. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Types and Method of research • • • • • Pure and applied Exploratory research Diagnostic study Evaluation study Action Research     Experimental research Analytical study Historical research Survey research
  28. 28. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Pure &Applied • It is also known as basic or fundamental research • It is initiated out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness • Initiated for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice( Einstein theory of relativity, Newton's law) • It will lead to discovery of other areas like new theory or refinement of the existing theory • It lays foundation for applied research
  29. 29. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Applied Research • It is problem oriented and action oriented research initiated to find out solution to areal life problem requiring an action or policy decision • It always focusing for an immediate and practical results • Applied research have a vast scope in the fields of technology, management, commerce ,economics, and other social sciences
  30. 30. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Exploratory research • Exploratory study is a preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge • It is ill structured and much less focused on predetermined objectives • To generate ideas, to increase the familiarity of researcher about the problem • To make a precise formulation of the problem etc(more note )
  31. 31. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Descriptive research • It is the simplest form of research. it is a fact finding investigation with adequate interpretations • t is more specific than exploratory research • It is designed to gather descriptive information information and provides information for formulating more sophisticated study
  32. 32. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 criteria • The problem must be descriptive • The data should be assessable to an accurate objective • It should be possible to develop valid studies of comparison • It should lead itself to verifiable procedure of collection and analysis of data
  33. 33. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 objective • Identifying the various characteristics of a community institutions or problem under study. but it does not deal with testing of hypothesis ,but it can reveal the relationship b/w variables • Usefulness • Development of young sciences • Highlighting of methodological aspects of data collection &interpretation • Prediction • Providing facts
  34. 34. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Diagnostic study • It is more or less same to the descriptive study but with a different focus. • It intends to discover what is happening ,why it is happening ,what can be done about it • It aims at identifying the problem and the posssible solution for it • Requirement
  35. 35. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Evaluation study • It is one type of applied research .made for assessing the effectiveness of social economic programmmes implemented or for assessing the impact of development project on the development of the project area such as determination of the results attained by some activity designed o accomplish some values or goals or objective
  36. 36. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • The propose of the study is asses or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success or failure • The change that brought by the project is also assessed in evaluative study. • Concurrent evaluation, periodic valuation, terminal evaluation are different types of ER
  37. 37. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Action Research • It is type of evaluative study. • It is concurrent evaluation study of an action programmme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation
  38. 38. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 Experimental research • It is designed to asses the effects of particular variables on a phenomena by keeping the other variable constant or controlled. • It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. • The factor which is influenced by other factors is called dependant variables. • And other factors which influence it are known as independent variables
  39. 39. BMT-LISSAH 2/20/2012 • For eg: agricultral productivity /ph productivity is determined by the fertility, Irrigation,manuring etc. • Qualitative & Quantitative Research?????
  40. 40. BMT-LISSAH Historical Research 2/20/2012