• A detailed study of a subject, especially in order
to discover (new) information or reach a (new)
• Example of research
To get more detailed information about our
competitors we have to do some research on the
Internet as well as in libraries.
• SYSTEMATIC because there is a definite set
of procedures and steps which you will follow.
There are certain things in the research process
which are always done in order to get the most
• ORGANIZED in that there is a structure or
method in going about doing research. It is a
planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is
focused and limited to a specific scope.
Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way
of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS.
• FINDING ANSWERS is the end of all
research. Whether it is the answer to a
hypothesis or even a simple question, research
is successful when we find answers. Sometimes
the answer is no, but it is still an answer.
• QUESTIONS are central to research. If there is
no question, then the answer is of no use.
Research is focused on relevant, useful, and
important questions. Without a question,
research has no focus, drive, or purpose.
Classification of Research By
Research by Purpose
R & D
• In its purest form, basic research is conducted solely for
the purpose of theory development and refinement.
• Example: Theories of Motivation
Theories of Leadership
• Applied research, as the name implies, is conducted solely
for the purpose of applying, or testing theory and
evaluating its usefulness in solving problems
Applied researchers may investigate ways to:
• improve agricultural crop production
• treat or cure a specific disease
• improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes
• The purpose is to facilitate decision
making regarding the relative worth of 2
or more actions
• Major purpose is not to formulate or test theory but to
develop effective products .
Research and development
• Purpose is to solve business and management problems
through the application of the scientific method
Classification of Research By Method
Research By Method
• It involves studying, understanding, and explaining past
• Purpose is to arrive at conclusions concerning causes,
effects, or trends of past occurrences that may help to
explain present events and anticipate future. Should be to
predict or explain—not to rehash.
• Attempts to determine whether and, to what degree, a
relationship exists between two or more quantifiable
• Purpose may be to establish a relationship or to use
relationships in making predictions.
• Descriptive research is used to obtain information
concerning the current status of the phenomena to
describe "what exists" with respect to variables or
conditions in a situation.
• Surveys (questionnaires, Delphi method, interviews,
• Case Studies
• Job Analyses
• Documentary Analysis
• Developmental Studies
• Here you test the cause and effect relationship of two
variables. One is dependant and the other one is
• You cannot manipulate the variable
• This is an experiment where the researcher manipulates
one variable, and control the rest of the variables. It has a
control group, the subjects have been randomly assigned
between the groups, and the researcher only tests one
effect at a time. It is also important to know what
variable(s) you want to test and measure.
• (1) defining the problem,
• (2) reviewing the related literature,
• (3) formulating the hypothesis,
• (4) selecting the research design and then collecting
and analyzing data, and
• (5) developing the conclusion
Steps of Research