Biology 199 Lecture 2 (Research Process)

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Biology 199 Lecture 2 (Research Process)

  1. 1. Research, The Research Process, Research Methodology LECTURE 2 (BIOLOGY 199) MARILEN M. PARUNGAO
  2. 2. RESEARCH viewed as a problem-solving activity follows a logical series of steps (research process) which makes it different from other problem-solving activities
  3. 3. Research Methodology (Leedy, 1997) the core concept underlying the research process the methodology controls the study itself and the processes needed to realize the study the methodology controls and dictates the acquisition of data, arranges them in logical relationships, sets up a means of refining the raw data, contrives an approach so that meanings that lie below the surface of those data become manifest, and finally issues a conclusion or series of conclusions that lead to an expansion of knowledge the entire process is a unified effort as well as an appreciation of its component parts
  4. 4. The Process of Research: Logical Steps THE RESEARCH PROBLEM PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION (LOOKING FOR A TOPIC) CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM RESEARCHABILITY OF THE PROBLEM FORMULATION OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES DEFINITION OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
  5. 5. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM THE HEART OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT REQUIREMENT: TO STATE THE PROBLEM WITH UNWAVERING CLARITY, PRECISION WHAT IF I SIMPLY CANNOT FIND A GOOD PROBLEM?
  6. 6. IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM WHERE TO FIND INTERESTING PROBLEMS... JOURNALS, BOOKS, ABSTRACTS (LIBRARY/TRUSTED LINKS) RECOMMENDATION SECTIONS OF THESES AND DISSERTATIONS/JOURNAL ARTICLES IDEAS FROM YOUR MENTOR OR PROFESSOR IDEAS FROM SEMINARS, RESEARCH COLLOQUIA AND CONFERENCES PERSONAL/FAMILY EXPERIENCES RARE/INTERESTING OCCURRENCES WHICH NEEDS TO BE EXPLAINED TOP TEN CAUSES OF MORTALITY/MORBIDITY IN YOUR LOCALITY
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTIC OF A RESEARCH PROBLEM SHOULD BE OF GREAT INTEREST TO YOU USEFUL FOR THE CONCERNED PEOPLE IN A PARTICULAR FIELD POSSESS NOVELTY LAYS FOUNDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH IN THE FIELD CAN BE COMPLETED IN THE ALLOTTED TIME DESIRED MUST USE APPROPRIATE AND UP-TO-DATE TECHNOOLOGY DOES NOT CARRY ETHICAL OR MORAL IMPEDIMENTS
  8. 8. A GOOD RESEARCH PROBLEM SHOULD BE SMART SPECIFIC, MEASURABLE, ACHIEVABLE, REALISTIC, TIME-BOUND
  9. 9. IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH? EXTERNAL FACTORS NOVELTY AND AVOIDANCE OF UNNECESSARY REPETITION PRACTICAL VALUE OF THE PROBLEM
  10. 10. IS MY PROBLEM WORTHY OF RESEARCH? PERSONAL FACTORS TRAINING AND PERSONAL QUALIFICATIONS TIME REQUIREMENTS AVAILABILITY OF SUBJECTS AND EQUIPMENTS SPECIALIZED WORKING CONDITIONS HAZARDS TO BE ENCOUNTERED RESEARCH FUNDS (COST)
  11. 11. STATING YOUR RESEARCH PROBLEM THE RESEARCH PROBLEM MUST BE STATED IN A CLEAR AND COMPLETE GRAMMATICAL SENTENCE IN AS FEW WORDS AS POSSIBLE!
  12. 12. WHAT’S WRONG WITH THESE RESEARCH BUSING OF SCHOOL CHILDREN RETIREMENT PLANS OF ADULTS EFFECT OF PHARMACEUTICALS ON EMBRYO E. COLI AND WATER QUALITY
  13. 13. FORMULATION OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES RESEARCH OBJECTIVES REFLECT THE QUESTIONS WHOSE ANSWERS THE INVESTIGATOR WANTS TO STUDY YIELD TO CAN BE EXPRESSED EITHER IN THE FORM OF A STATEMENT OR A QUESTION SERVES AS THE STEERING WHEEL IN THE CONDUCT OF A RESEARCH PROJECT SERVES A S AGUIDE IN SPECIFYING VARIABLES TILL INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
  14. 14. SAMPLE OBJECTIVES TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMIZED PROTOCOL TO DETECT FLAVIVIRUSES IN SERUM SAMPLES USING PCR TO DETERMINE THE EFFICACY OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROBIOTICS IN MANAGING OBESITY TO ESTABLISH THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANT HEIGHT AND FERTILIZER CONCENTRATION IN CORN
  15. 15. IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVES PHRASED CLEARLY, UNAMBIGUOUSLY AND SPECIFICALLY STATED IN MEASURABLE TERMS AND DO NOT INVOLVE VALUE JUDGEMENT
  16. 16. GENERAL VERSUS SPECIFIC GENERAL OBJECTIVE a generic statement which describes in broad terms what the study wishes to accomplish SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE contain indicators on how to accomplish the stated objectives and therefore, gives direction to the research process; identifies in detail and measureable terms the aims of the research study
  17. 17. EXAMPLE General Objectives: To investigate the histological effects of neem seed kernel extract on mouse testis Specific Objectives To determine/identify the changes in testes histology due to neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) exposure To determine the relationship between neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) and occurrence of abnormal sperm morphology To provide a feasible physiological basis for the anti-libido property of neem extract
  18. 18. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE After the research problem has been identified and the objectives formulated, a review of related literature needs to be done. Two Important Uses: • To get acquainted with the existing studies related to the research to be conducted relative to: - who have done the work on the problem area - what has been found - research design utilized - statistical analysis applied - problem met and how were they resolved • To establish a rationale or a theoretical or conceptual framework based on previous research studies done.
  19. 19. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS Researcher must be shrewd in narrowing the scope of his study without becoming concerned with a trivial problem Assumptions, restrictions and limitation must be explicit with respect to the coverage of the study Helps focus attention on valid objectives, & helps minimize the dangers of over generalization
  20. 20. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN DELIMITING THE PROBLEM the scope of the problem time allotted for the conduct of the study cost and funding cooperation/coordination needed from other institutions or researchers availability of research subjects availability of equipment needed ethical considerations
  21. 21. EXAMPLE Impact of continuing education for health workers The effect of continuing education activities conducted by the Department of Health (DOH) for its staff on their performance The effect of workshops/seminars conducted by the DOH for its staff on their ability to manage the different programs of the DOH in the field To determine the effect of the Master Trainor’s Course conducted by the DOH on the capabilities of the participants to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate the training programs they conduct in the field
  22. 22. FORMULATION OF A TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS
  23. 23. DEFINITION A tentative explanation for certain phenomena, or events which have occurred or will occur (Gay, 1976) States the researcher’s expectations concerning the relationship between two or more variables in the research problem Testable statement of a potential relationship between two or more variables (McGuigan, 1978)
  24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD HYPOTHESIS Stated in declarative form Stated in definite terms, the relationship between variables Should reflect the theory or literature that it is based on Should be brief and to the point Should be testable
  25. 25. TWO TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS “RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS AND THE NULL HYPOTHESIS”
  26. 26. THE NULL HYPOTHESIS Ho Never true or established but can be possibly disproved in the course of the experimentation No difference relationship between the variables we want to study May act as a starting point and as a benchmark against which the researcher will measure the actual outcome of the study once the researcher has collected the data
  27. 27. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS HA Alternative hypothesis Relationship is always positive
  28. 28. EXAMPLES Ho : Vitamin C does not inhibit chromosomal lagging HA : Vitamin C does inhibit chromosomal lagging by 50% compared to placebo Ho : Cerebral artery bypass is as effective as standard medical therapy HA : Cerebral artery bypass is more effective than standard medical therapy
  29. 29. TWO TYPES OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Non-directional – reflects a difference between groups, but the direction of the difference (unequal) is NOT specified Directional – reflects a difference between groups and the difference is specified
  30. 30. IDENTIFICATION OF RESEARCH VARIABLES Variable – any trait/characteristic that manifest differences irrespective of whether the differences are qualitative or quantitative Qualitative – eye color, shape of teeth, sex Quantitative – weight, height, length, light intensity, temperature
  31. 31. TYPES OF VARIABLE Independent – the treatment variable variables in the course of an experiment in an effort to understand the effects of this manipulation on some outcome (which you know as the dependent variable) the variable which is presumed to cause, effect, influence, or stimulate the outcome Dependent – outcome variables in a research study refers to the outcome or response variable Extraneous Variable – by themselves produce changes which may be mistaken to be the effect of the independent variable being considered Controlled, held constant or randomized – so the effects are neutralized, cancelled out or equated for all conditions
  32. 32. TRY THIS... PROBLEM: the effect of carbon dioxide loading on plant morphology Identify the: Independent variable Dependent variable Intervening/extraneous variable
  33. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF A RESEARCH DESIGN represents the “plan of attack” of the researcher in answering the research objectives in obtaining all the relevant data in relation to objectives and hypothesis the specific areas of concern in the choice of a research design are the following selection and number of subjects control and manipulation of relevant variables establishment of criteria to evaluate outcomes instrumentation maximization of internal and external validity
  34. 34. FACTORS TO CONSIDER research objectives feasibility ethical considerations economy and efficiency internal and external validity
  35. 35. INTERNAL VALIDITY refers to extent to which investigator is able to control the different biases affecting the study and in the end, measures what he really intends to measure Did the experimental treatment really bring about a change in the dependent variable? Did the independent variable make a significant difference?
  36. 36. EXTERNAL VALIDITY refers to the extent to which the investigator is able to generalize the results of his study Are the results applicable to groups and environment outside of experimental setting?
  37. 37. DESIGN THE TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION Experimentation Questionnaire Interview schedule and forms
  38. 38. DESIGN THE PLAN FOR DATA ANALYSIS A number of researchers think about data analysis only after all data has been collected Consequences: Some very important variables in study are either not measured at all or collected using a measurement scale which is inconsistent with desired mode of data analysis Objectives are too ambitious or non-measurable, given the nature of the data that were collected
  39. 39. THE SOLUTION... A good practice is to construct a dummy table Dummy Tables – skeleton tables drawn to help the investigator conceptualize how the data is going to be organized and presented after it has been collected
  40. 40. COLLECTION OF DATA Essential phase of the research process Researcher employs specialized tools, instruments and procedures depending upon the method designed for such activity
  41. 41. DATA PROCESSING Process the information gathered to prepare for and facilitate analysis and interpretation of data. Editing of data collection forms and coding of responses are procedures usually done in this stage
  42. 42. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Involves quantification, description, and classification of data Statistics play a major role Researcher must be familiar with basic statistical concepts and procedures and must know their limitations as well as the areas where they may be appropriately applied
  43. 43. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Researcher summarizes the discussion on the research findings and make a clear concluding remarks Researcher identifies major points that were not raised in the present study and could lay the framework for future undertakings
  44. 44. WRITING OF RESEARCH REPORT Researcher prepares report of different activities he has undertaken together with his findings Report must be well-organized and presented in proper form and style The basic principles of technical report writing are followed
  45. 45. REPORT OF RESEARCH FINDINGS Publish findings in scientific journals and news releases Presentation of results in scientific meetings
  46. 46. SO...READY TO DO YOUR RESEARCH???

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