Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Computing History Part 1


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Computing History Part 1

  1. An Overview of the Computing Industry Review of “A History of Modern Computing” by Paul E Cerruzi and “Those who forget the lessons…” by John Lee
  2. Those who forget the Lessons of History are bound to repeat it. <ul><li>Lack of proper archives or historians for computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between computer science and computing. </li></ul><ul><li>A common myth is that history if preserving of Artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s not a century old is not considered history by Historians. </li></ul>
  3. History <ul><li>1 st conf held at Los Almos Nat Lab in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary history :Chronological history and the emphasis on firsts. </li></ul><ul><li>With respect to Computing, its more about saving documents and reasoning rather than code. </li></ul><ul><li>Document failures more than successes. </li></ul><ul><li>Firsts are a matter of definition rather than chronology. </li></ul><ul><li>History is overloaded – use tools of analysis and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder of giants - look at what the giants had to go through to achieve Gianthood. </li></ul>
  4. History <ul><li>Good Judgment : Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Experience : Bad Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>When history is sound a certain problems are not even considered problems. </li></ul>
  5. Points <ul><li>Technology provides a better way of doing the same task with no Increase in productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology provides a faster way of doing things. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology provides capability of sovling future problems or problems that seemed unsolvable. </li></ul>
  6. Teachings from History <ul><li>Napiers Chessboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Von Neumann’s Parallel designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Da Vinci’s helicopter design. </li></ul>
  7. A history of modern computing
  8. Computing <ul><li>Arose as a part of the military need </li></ul><ul><li>ENIAC was the first of its kind to serve American defense </li></ul>
  10. Von Neumann’s Stored Program Principle <ul><li>1945 report by John Von Neumann </li></ul><ul><li>The Neumann bottleneck </li></ul><ul><li>Univac was the first Stored program computer whose first task was the census calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Automation – termed at the Ford Motor Company </li></ul><ul><li>IBM responded with the 701(willians tubes) </li></ul>
  11. The Univac
  12. Early Machines <ul><li>Drum based memory </li></ul><ul><li>Speeds of about 11 multiplications/sec </li></ul><ul><li>A very different m/c Bendix G-15 built in UK using Alan Turing's idea of a computer. </li></ul>
  13. Early Drum based IBM’s
  14. 1956 - 1964 <ul><li>Core memory was introduced. They were small, volatile and provided Random Access. </li></ul><ul><li>SAGE project </li></ul><ul><li>GE, Honeywell, ERMA were the other players </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Architecture as its known today started taking shape in terms of word length, Registers , Addresses, IO , special hardware for FLOPS </li></ul>
  15. Rise of IBM <ul><li>Due to huge military presence </li></ul><ul><li>Emulators, OS were introduced in this era </li></ul><ul><li>Were Bashed for being a monolith; there were even lawsuits for monopolizing the market. </li></ul>
  16. Birth of Software <ul><li>Mainframes needed s/w to run that IBM developed inhouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Reuse in Harvard Mark 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Univac got its first Compiler. </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblers and other routines were being developed to aid easy programmable machines </li></ul><ul><li>SHARE (1955) – first user group for IBM 701 users. </li></ul>
  17. Programming languages <ul><li>FORTRAN for IBM 704 </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Grace Hopper and standardized in 1960 to run on all IBM hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Early signs of Y2K </li></ul><ul><li>ALGOL written in BNF </li></ul><ul><li>OS originated from requirement of Batch Processing. </li></ul>
  18. 1968 <ul><li>Knuth’s Art of Computer Programming </li></ul><ul><li>German Conference for S/W Engg. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Unbundling of Software </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of UNIX </li></ul>
  19. Mainframes and MiniComputers <ul><li>PDP8 , IBM 7074 </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement of Federal Govt in funding and the space program. </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – SSN is introduced by IRS to ease computing . </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo program and the need for real time computation </li></ul>
  20. IBM 7070
  21. Minicomputer <ul><li>Teletype made PC smaller and easy to interact with. </li></ul><ul><li>DEC was a major player </li></ul><ul><li>Low price and smaller computers. </li></ul>
  22. Minicomputer PDP8
  23. Teletypes
  24. GO-GO Years <ul><li>IBM 360 line of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Microprograms, control units simplification </li></ul><ul><li>Emulators for old machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Time Sharing systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Leasing companies, and tons of competitors </li></ul><ul><li>CDC 6600 or the CRAY computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Software houses </li></ul><ul><li>The Mythical man month </li></ul>
  25. IBM 360’s
  26. CRAY
  27. Chip and its Impact -1965 -1975 <ul><li>Grosch’s law </li></ul><ul><li>IC invented and perfected by TI and Fairchild </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly attributed to the Aerospace industry </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation minicomputers </li></ul><ul><li>RAM’s, BUS’s in PDP8 which eventually become PDP11 </li></ul><ul><li>CICS is reborn </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC at Darthmoth </li></ul>