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Computing History Part 1

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Computing History Part 1

  1. An Overview of the Computing Industry Review of “A History of Modern Computing” by Paul E Cerruzi and “Those who forget the lessons…” by John Lee
  2. Those who forget the Lessons of History are bound to repeat it. <ul><li>Lack of proper archives or historians for computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between computer science and computing. </li></ul><ul><li>A common myth is that history if preserving of Artifacts. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s not a century old is not considered history by Historians. </li></ul>
  3. History <ul><li>1 st conf held at Los Almos Nat Lab in 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary history :Chronological history and the emphasis on firsts. </li></ul><ul><li>With respect to Computing, its more about saving documents and reasoning rather than code. </li></ul><ul><li>Document failures more than successes. </li></ul><ul><li>Firsts are a matter of definition rather than chronology. </li></ul><ul><li>History is overloaded – use tools of analysis and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder of giants - look at what the giants had to go through to achieve Gianthood. </li></ul>
  4. History <ul><li>Good Judgment : Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Experience : Bad Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>When history is sound a certain problems are not even considered problems. </li></ul>
  5. Points <ul><li>Technology provides a better way of doing the same task with no Increase in productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology provides a faster way of doing things. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology provides capability of sovling future problems or problems that seemed unsolvable. </li></ul>
  6. Teachings from History <ul><li>Napiers Chessboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Von Neumann’s Parallel designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Da Vinci’s helicopter design. </li></ul>
  7. A history of modern computing
  8. Computing <ul><li>Arose as a part of the military need </li></ul><ul><li>ENIAC was the first of its kind to serve American defense </li></ul>
  9.  
  10. Von Neumann’s Stored Program Principle <ul><li>1945 report by John Von Neumann </li></ul><ul><li>The Neumann bottleneck </li></ul><ul><li>Univac was the first Stored program computer whose first task was the census calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Automation – termed at the Ford Motor Company </li></ul><ul><li>IBM responded with the 701(willians tubes) </li></ul>
  11. The Univac
  12. Early Machines <ul><li>Drum based memory </li></ul><ul><li>Speeds of about 11 multiplications/sec </li></ul><ul><li>A very different m/c Bendix G-15 built in UK using Alan Turing's idea of a computer. </li></ul>
  13. Early Drum based IBM’s
  14. 1956 - 1964 <ul><li>Core memory was introduced. They were small, volatile and provided Random Access. </li></ul><ul><li>SAGE project </li></ul><ul><li>GE, Honeywell, ERMA were the other players </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Architecture as its known today started taking shape in terms of word length, Registers , Addresses, IO , special hardware for FLOPS </li></ul>
  15. Rise of IBM <ul><li>Due to huge military presence </li></ul><ul><li>Emulators, OS were introduced in this era </li></ul><ul><li>Were Bashed for being a monolith; there were even lawsuits for monopolizing the market. </li></ul>
  16. Birth of Software <ul><li>Mainframes needed s/w to run that IBM developed inhouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Reuse in Harvard Mark 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Univac got its first Compiler. </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblers and other routines were being developed to aid easy programmable machines </li></ul><ul><li>SHARE (1955) – first user group for IBM 701 users. </li></ul>
  17. Programming languages <ul><li>FORTRAN for IBM 704 </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by Grace Hopper and standardized in 1960 to run on all IBM hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Early signs of Y2K </li></ul><ul><li>ALGOL written in BNF </li></ul><ul><li>OS originated from requirement of Batch Processing. </li></ul>
  18. 1968 <ul><li>Knuth’s Art of Computer Programming </li></ul><ul><li>German Conference for S/W Engg. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property Issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Unbundling of Software </li></ul><ul><li>Birth of UNIX </li></ul>
  19. Mainframes and MiniComputers <ul><li>PDP8 , IBM 7074 </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement of Federal Govt in funding and the space program. </li></ul><ul><li>1965 – SSN is introduced by IRS to ease computing . </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo program and the need for real time computation </li></ul>
  20. IBM 7070
  21. Minicomputer <ul><li>Teletype made PC smaller and easy to interact with. </li></ul><ul><li>DEC was a major player </li></ul><ul><li>Low price and smaller computers. </li></ul>
  22. Minicomputer PDP8
  23. Teletypes
  24. GO-GO Years <ul><li>IBM 360 line of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Microprograms, control units simplification </li></ul><ul><li>Emulators for old machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Time Sharing systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Leasing companies, and tons of competitors </li></ul><ul><li>CDC 6600 or the CRAY computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Software houses </li></ul><ul><li>The Mythical man month </li></ul>
  25. IBM 360’s
  26. CRAY
  27. Chip and its Impact -1965 -1975 <ul><li>Grosch’s law </li></ul><ul><li>IC invented and perfected by TI and Fairchild </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly attributed to the Aerospace industry </li></ul><ul><li>Second generation minicomputers </li></ul><ul><li>RAM’s, BUS’s in PDP8 which eventually become PDP11 </li></ul><ul><li>CICS is reborn </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC at Darthmoth </li></ul>

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