Week 9 Building Legal Institutions for Information Technology 1: Internet Governance Milton L.Mueller. 2002. Ruling the Ro...
Organization of the Book <ul><li>Framework & Backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Internet under ICA...
The Problem of the Root <ul><li>Reston, Virginia (July 1998) Unusual gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Model, Common Principles,...
The Root <ul><li>IP Address, Domain Name </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Real Estate </li></ul><ul><li>IFWP </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Institutionalization <ul><li>Worry on distribution of power over the root </li></ul><ul><li>Describes what happened to int...
The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Unique identifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to do in a distributive ...
The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Policy problems created by semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Lose of identity...
The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Governance arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet address space </li><...
The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Essential tasks to maintain uniqueness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain ...
The Internet name and Address Spaces <ul><li>Request For Comments – RFCs </li></ul><ul><li>Packets, IP Address </li></ul><...
The Internet name and Address Spaces <ul><li>Internet Address Registries </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 address space become scarc...
DNS <ul><li>Highly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 4 basic elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name space </li></ul><...
DNS Root <ul><li>Refers to Root zone file & Root name server </li></ul><ul><li>Standards Competition (Issue) </li></ul><ul...
Necessary to create new DNS Root <ul><li>Not-enough top level domains </li></ul><ul><li>Technological innovations (charact...
The Root and Institutional Change <ul><li>A huge ocean. No one owns it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional naïveté </li><...
The Root and Institutional Change <ul><li>“Tragedy of the commons” story </li></ul><ul><li>3 major barriers to the resolut...
Growing the Root <ul><li>ARPANET  </li></ul><ul><li>First ARPANET node installed at UCLA </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible per...
Growing the Root <ul><li>1982 - Invention of Domain Name Sysem </li></ul><ul><li>Each system maintained  hosts.txt </li></...
Growing the Root <ul><li>Semantic issues </li></ul><ul><li>OSI – Open Systems Interconnection </li></ul><ul><li>Technology...
Growing the Root <ul><li>National Science Foundation Backbone to support educational researches. </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – ...
Growing the Root <ul><li>IETF – All documentation was open, non-copyrighted and freely available </li></ul><ul><li>1992 - ...
Appropriating the Root <ul><li>URL (Uniform Resource Locator) </li></ul><ul><li>Domain names began to refer contents </li>...
Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Raise of property rights conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Name Speculation: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Typo-Squatting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registered misspellings of the domain names of the pop...
Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Domain Dispute Resolution Policy Statement – by Network Solutions to prevent the rights of ...
Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Loop holes in the policies (don’t know the duration) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of nuisance...
Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Delegation conflicts over country codes </li></ul><ul><li>New rule: Expressed wishes of the...
Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Claims over the Root: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Society (ISOC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
The Root in Play <ul><li>Blue ribbon international panel – to develop and implement a blueprint for a global governance st...
The Root in Play <ul><li>Generic Top-Level Domain Memorandum of Understanding (gTLD-MOU) </li></ul><ul><li>The MOUment </l...
The Root in Play <ul><li>Governance wars </li></ul><ul><li>Business community opposed / refused to lend their support for ...
Institutionalizing the Root <ul><li>Fighting the Green Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling the dominant coalition </li></ul...
Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>May 1991 – National Science Foundation permitted commercial traff...
Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>World Wide Web  - made internet easier to navigate </li></ul><ul>...
Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>Decline of IFWP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosely organized </li></ul...
Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>ICANN agreed to Jointly design, Develop and test the mechanisms, ...
The New Regime <ul><li>Property systems created by ICANN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network solutions’ monopoly profits were re...
The New Regime <ul><li>New Top Level domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications for new TLD (Top – Level domains) </li></u...
Issues and Themes <ul><li>ICANN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist structure  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects and rule ma...
References <ul><li>http:// computer.howstuffworks.com/dns.htm/printable   </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cato.org/pubs/brief...
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Building Legal Institutions for Information Technology

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Building Legal Institutions for Information Technology

  1. 1. Week 9 Building Legal Institutions for Information Technology 1: Internet Governance Milton L.Mueller. 2002. Ruling the Root: Internet Governance and Taming of Cyberscape. MIT Press
  2. 2. Organization of the Book <ul><li>Framework & Backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>Internet under ICANN (policies, social issues, stakes)‏ </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Problem of the Root <ul><li>Reston, Virginia (July 1998) Unusual gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Model, Common Principles, Structure & general Charter provisions </li></ul><ul><li>Informal meet </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name wars </li></ul><ul><li>The “White Paper” </li></ul><ul><li>US - Unusal approach to the transition </li></ul><ul><li>IFWP, ICANN </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Root <ul><li>IP Address, Domain Name </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Real Estate </li></ul><ul><li>IFWP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority to set policy, allocation of IP addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add new domain names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating root server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet governance </li></ul><ul><li>Internet “Drivers License” </li></ul><ul><li>Should a domain name administrator concerned with authenticity of the content associated with a specific domain name? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Institutionalization <ul><li>Worry on distribution of power over the root </li></ul><ul><li>Describes what happened to internet from 1996 – 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Who controls the Internet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporations / people who has power to issue authoritative commands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control takes the form of Institutions, not commands </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Unique identifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to do in a distributive manner </li></ul><ul><li>Two ways of achieving uniqueness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining the space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning values within the space </li></ul></ul>Layer 1: Technical Coordination to ensure uniqueness Layer 2: Economics Decisions about Rationing Scarcity Layer 3: Policy Decisions about Rights
  7. 7. The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Policy problems created by semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Lose of identity, promotion of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Rationing methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First come first serve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative fees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difference between the ways telecommunication and the Internet approached the governance arrangements. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Governance arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet address space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802, comes with h/w </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 + 40 bit combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 – Organizational unique identifier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 to be used by the purchasing organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple two part hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussed to find the distinction between identifiers that are publicly visible and meaningful and those that are not. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Basic Political Economy of Identifiers <ul><li>Essential tasks to maintain uniqueness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain the uniqueness of identifiers by making that assignments exclusive (technical layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent the resource from being consumed in an inefficient manner (the economic layer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolve competition or disputes around particular assignments (the policy layer) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Internet name and Address Spaces <ul><li>Request For Comments – RFCs </li></ul><ul><li>Packets, IP Address </li></ul><ul><li>Two part model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network to which a computer is attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific device attached to that network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class based addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a specific physical network in a specifc location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make decisions about how to forward data packets to their destination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing tables </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Internet name and Address Spaces <ul><li>Internet Address Registries </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 address space become scarcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightened address policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of new protocol (CIDR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of larger address space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet name space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming computers (single identifier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Information Center (hosts.txt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Name Service (DNS) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. DNS <ul><li>Highly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 4 basic elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name servers (stores list of domain names and associated IP address) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolvers (generate queries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource records (data or content stored in name server) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-addr.arpa registration of IP addresses </li></ul>Top-level domains (COM, EDU, ORG, NET) Second-level domains (name of the domain E.g., india) Third-level domains (www, INT, IST)
  13. 13. DNS Root <ul><li>Refers to Root zone file & Root name server </li></ul><ul><li>Standards Competition (Issue) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users choices are affected by value of compatibility with other users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Incompatibility between IBM & Apple machines </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Necessary to create new DNS Root <ul><li>Not-enough top level domains </li></ul><ul><li>Technological innovations (character support) </li></ul><ul><li>Political resistance </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Root and Institutional Change <ul><li>A huge ocean. No one owns it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional naïveté </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutionalization of the internet driven Innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions the Relationship between technology & institutional change. </li></ul><ul><li>How technological endowment can lead to significant & rapid institutional changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for institutional arrangements will become urgent, especially when the resource space created requires sharing or coordination to be used effectively. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Root and Institutional Change <ul><li>“Tragedy of the commons” story </li></ul><ul><li>3 major barriers to the resolution of the property rights conflict. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There was no established, formal organization with clear authority over the root. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to define property rights in domain names suffered from the major conflicts over the distribution of wealth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracting proved to be difficult because of the heterogeneity of the groups involved. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Growing the Root <ul><li>ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>First ARPANET node installed at UCLA </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible persons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steve Crocker  Request For Comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jon Postel  Assignments of ports & protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vinton Cerf  One of the principle desingners of TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of TCP. </li></ul><ul><li>Connection oriented, connectionless approaches. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Growing the Root <ul><li>1982 - Invention of Domain Name Sysem </li></ul><ul><li>Each system maintained hosts.txt </li></ul><ul><li>The real push for network growth came not from the need to share mainframes but from email. </li></ul><ul><li>Email contributed in exchanging ideas </li></ul><ul><li>First top level domain : .darpa </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed top level domains : .darpa, .ddn, .gov, .cor, .pub </li></ul>
  19. 19. Growing the Root <ul><li>Semantic issues </li></ul><ul><li>OSI – Open Systems Interconnection </li></ul><ul><li>Technology adoption choices powerfully shaped by the choices other adopters make </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidize initial adoption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., TCP/IP by DARPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gateways developed to effective communication with other protocols </li></ul>
  20. 20. Growing the Root <ul><li>National Science Foundation Backbone to support educational researches. </li></ul><ul><li>1989 – RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeens) – Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism over US’s hold on IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Required US government sponsor to get IP address. </li></ul><ul><li>1990 – above barrier removed using the in-addr.darpa entries </li></ul>
  21. 21. Growing the Root <ul><li>IETF – All documentation was open, non-copyrighted and freely available </li></ul><ul><li>1992 - Formation of Internet Society </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Society seen as way of funding IETF, IAB </li></ul><ul><li>Who controlled Root? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct & Indirect support U.S. Military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Networking Council (FNC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear that the whole internet could come to a screeching halt if the military flexed its muscle </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Appropriating the Root <ul><li>URL (Uniform Resource Locator) </li></ul><ul><li>Domain names began to refer contents </li></ul><ul><li>.com became default extension for names without top level extensions </li></ul><ul><li>Registration for domains went up faster </li></ul><ul><li>Development of domain name market in other countries </li></ul>
  23. 23. Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Raise of property rights conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Name Speculation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals hold domain names of large companies knowingly / unknowingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resale of domain names became a business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicacies of first-come/fist-served principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dennis Toeppen – registered 200 domains with famous, trademarked names </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Typo-Squatting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registered misspellings of the domain names of the popular Web sites/ company names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., yhahoo.com </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parody, preemption and diversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for Unfair competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrongly imitating the opponents domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rights of Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name registered is someone famous </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Domain Dispute Resolution Policy Statement – by Network Solutions to prevent the rights of the third parties </li></ul><ul><li>Favoring trademark owners </li></ul><ul><li>Some more policies brought out the relationship between domain names and trademarks in U.S. law. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Loop holes in the policies (don’t know the duration) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of nuisance registrations $100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of recovering >= $10000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High transaction cost affected ordinary registrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both foreign and domestic registrants were not required to identify themselves correctly in the registration record </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Delegation conflicts over country codes </li></ul><ul><li>New rule: Expressed wishes of the government with regard to the domain name manager of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Newdom –creating new top-level domains to reassert the authority of “the community” over internet administration </li></ul>
  28. 28. Appropriating the Root <ul><li>Claims over the Root: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Society (ISOC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative Root Servers </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Root in Play <ul><li>Blue ribbon international panel – to develop and implement a blueprint for a global governance structure </li></ul><ul><li>1996 – formation of International Ad Hoc Committee (IAHC) </li></ul><ul><li>Established policies on monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>Established corporate structure </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Root in Play <ul><li>Generic Top-Level Domain Memorandum of Understanding (gTLD-MOU) </li></ul><ul><li>The MOUment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IETF procedures had been abondoned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political, Personal & economic alliances used MOU to show their neutrality </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Root in Play <ul><li>Governance wars </li></ul><ul><li>Business community opposed / refused to lend their support for MOU. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Government intervened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Science Foundation exited from NSI alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalistic sentiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green paper – Statement of US governments authority over name & address root </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Institutionalizing the Root <ul><li>Fighting the Green Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling the dominant coalition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Internet Project (GIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM & MCI’s internet division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1998 – White Paper (?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Statement of Policy” instead of “rule making document” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not-for-profit corporation, containing private sector stakeholders, to administer the policy for the Internet name & address system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Forum on the White Paper (IFWP) </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>May 1991 – National Science Foundation permitted commercial traffic to cross the NSFNET. </li></ul><ul><li>Stipulations over cost recovery, surplus revenues & quality of service followed </li></ul><ul><li>1993 - Moved to entirely new architecture for the internet </li></ul><ul><li>NSF withdrew from backbone support. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>World Wide Web - made internet easier to navigate </li></ul><ul><li>Browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Internet Explorer) – attracted much broader base of users </li></ul><ul><li>Internet became mass medium for communication and commerce </li></ul>
  35. 35. Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>Decline of IFWP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosely organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several supporters of IANA obstructed attempts to push the IFWP process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IANA became centrifugal point of incorporation process </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Appropriating the Root: Property rights conflict <ul><li>ICANN agreed to Jointly design, Develop and test the mechanisms, methods and procedures needed to transfer management of the root </li></ul>
  37. 37. The New Regime <ul><li>Property systems created by ICANN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network solutions’ monopoly profits were redistributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trademark protection became one of the major determinants of registering a domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Scarcity in top-level domain was maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network solutions succeeded in retaining the long term property right over the .com domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National govt & Internation govts won a limited role in ICANN’s structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US govt retained the residual authority over the DNS root </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. The New Regime <ul><li>New Top Level domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications for new TLD (Top – Level domains) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application fees alone totaled US$2.5 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.info, .biz, .name, .museum </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Issues and Themes <ul><li>ICANN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalist structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects and rule making authority need to be closely related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deviates from the bottom-up consensus model because of decisions it has to take </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. References <ul><li>http:// computer.howstuffworks.com/dns.htm/printable </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cato.org/pubs/briefs/bp-033.html - Internet Domain Names Privatization Competition And Freedom Of Expression by Milton L. Mueller </li></ul><ul><li>http:// ischool.syr.edu/FACSTAFF/member.aspx?id =118 – Milton L Mueller </li></ul><ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jon_Postel - Jon Postel </li></ul><ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_nameserver - Root name server </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/domainname/dnsdrft.htm - “Green Paper” explaining US government's definitive authority over the Internet DNS root zone </li></ul>

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