Week 8 – The Transformation of Work in the Information Age <ul><li>Manuel Castells. 2000. (2 nd  ed.).  The Rise of the Ne...
Introduction <ul><li>This presentation is on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation of work and employment </li></ul></ul><u...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Manuel Castells, tries to address following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secul...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Classical theory of post-industrialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of p...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Proposed criterion for post-industrialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinct...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The transformation of employment structure  1920-70, 1970-90 </li></ul><...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The transformation of employment structure  1920-70, 1970-90 </li></ul><...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Services industry </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul></ul><u...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Paths of growth  post-industrial (after 1970) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapi...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Quicker destruction of manufacturing jobs, instead of a gradual phasing ...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The new occupational structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse path (U...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Employment projections for 21 st  century: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agricul...
The Transformation of Work and Employment Sectoral employment shares (%) in the world, 1997 - 2007 Source: ILO, Global Emp...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Is there a Global Labor Force? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, individuals in...
The Transformation of Work and Employment Source : US Bureau of the Census. ( http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Work Process in the Informational Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wor...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Work Process in the Informational Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wit...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Work Process in the Informational Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Effects of Information Technology on Employment: Toward a Jobless So...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Summary   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New jobs created, old jobs depressed, ho...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Work and Information Divide: Flex-timers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working t...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Status of Employment Shares in total employment, 2007 in all regions (%)...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Work and Information Divide: Flex-timers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US model ...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Information Technology and the Restructuring of Capital-Labor Relation: ...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Information Technology and the Restructuring of Capital-Labor Relation: ...
The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New social structure </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>Adhoc committee miscalculation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation : computers will replicat...
New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>“divisions of labor” words by Adam Smith, new meaning in computer age </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>To bridge the divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rethink training and education </li></ul></ul><u...
New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>How work has changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerization new jobs and destroyed old. </li...
New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>How work has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Summary:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper and Lower ( ↑ ...
Why People Still Matter <ul><li>11.Nov.1999 Liffe closed, now Euronext. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euronext – digital, many oth...
Why People Still Matter <ul><li>Rules – step by step : computerized </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Rail Ticketing, Flight ...
Why People Still Matter <ul><li>Can computers substitute humans in all jobs </li></ul><ul><li>No, its not easy. However co...
How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Boeing – Use of CATIA, CNC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersed manufacturing, lo...
How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>What characterizes use of a new computer application </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A...
How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Computerization:   Employment or Unemployment ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With refer...
How Computers Change Work and Pay Source: ILO, Global Employment Trends Model, November 2007
How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Economy’s job mix in computer’s world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two schools of thoug...
How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Predictions by Herbert Simon, in his essay </li></ul><ul><li>Blue-collar workers...
How Computers Change Work and Pay Source : News Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. Released: T...
How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Workers skills and New Nature of Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert thinking  – n...
How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant drive to develop, produce, and market new...
References <ul><li>ILO,  Global employment trends :  January 2008.  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home page: ( http://www.ilo....
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Transformation of Work in the Information Age

4,772 views

Published on

A review of The Rise of the Network Society. Volume 1 of The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Blackwell. pp. 216-354
and Frank Levy and Richard Murnane. 2004. The New Division of Labor: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market.

Published in: Technology, Career
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,772
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
73
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Transformation of Work in the Information Age

  1. 1. Week 8 – The Transformation of Work in the Information Age <ul><li>Manuel Castells. 2000. (2 nd ed.). The Rise of the Network Society. Volume 1 of The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Blackwell. pp. 216-354 </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Levy and Richard Murnane. 2004. The New Division of Labor: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton University Press. pp. 1-54 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>This presentation is on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation of work and employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1920-70, 1970 and beyond </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All analysis based on data of Advanced Capitalist Countries: the G7 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation period is 1920-2007 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Manuel Castells, tries to address following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular transformation of employment structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of Global Labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of IT, widespread fear of jobless society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on social structure with emergence of the Information paradigm. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Classical theory of post-industrialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of productivity and growth lies in generation of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demise of agricultural and manufacturing employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New social structure based on importance of managerial, professional and technical occupations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Proposed criterion for post-industrialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinction not to be done on base of source, rather should be on form of knowledge based production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services sector increased, however manufacturing sector did not decline as predicted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth may be small, however low end or unskilled jobs continue to represent a significant number in post-industrial occupational structure. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The transformation of employment structure 1920-70, 1970-90 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-agricultural (1920-70) – Increase in employment in transformative activities. True for all G7. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-industrial (1970-90) – Decrease in manufacturing employment, however depression was uneven . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De-industrialization rate: rapid in US, UK and Italy. Moderate in Japan and Germany. Intermediate in France and Canada. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The transformation of employment structure 1920-70, 1970-90 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture  {Manufacturing and Services} </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Services industry </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producer services – information provider, support productivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social services – health, hospitals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributive services – transporation, communication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal services – eating and drinking places </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased for all G7 countries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>US: Pioneered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan: Increased, however rate was moderate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Paths of growth post-industrial (after 1970) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid phasing out of manufacturing services, increase in producer services (in rate) and social services (in size) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating manufacturing and producer, cautious increase in social services and maintaining distributive services. e.g. Japan (greater agricultural and retail), Germany (higher manufacturing employment) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Quicker destruction of manufacturing jobs, instead of a gradual phasing out, does not mean more advanced. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather the rate of decline of manufacturing services depends on policies and strategies followed, which in turn are based on cultural, social and political backdrop. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The new occupational structure </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse path (US {new . minus. old)}, Japan {old .coexist. new}) , however trend toward increase in informational occupations is common. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polarization of occupation structure = FALSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rate of change of jobs at top and bottom is different. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Employment projections for 21 st century: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture phased out; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>steady decline in manufacturing employment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase in services sector; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>producer + social services on rise </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Transformation of Work and Employment Sectoral employment shares (%) in the world, 1997 - 2007 Source: ILO, Global Employment Trends Model, November 2007
  14. 14. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Is there a Global Labor Force? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, individuals in innovative R&D, research scholars, cutting technology, financial management and services form global labor force. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indicators: keep high profile / non-repetitive, innovative task, outsource others for cheaper labor , sub-contracting, temporary labor, automate,… (downsize firm size) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Transformation of Work and Employment Source : US Bureau of the Census. ( http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign/STP-159-2000tl.html ) Foreign Born US Population (before 1970 and 1970:2000)
  16. 16. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Work Process in the Informational Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work and labor model is messy, not a neat (technological change + industrial relations policy + social action) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Automation demands human brain in work process, however later computers turn human into second order robots. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Work Process in the Informational Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With informational technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more employee participation – mainframe to PC (phases in office automation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased productivity, and quality product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>better feedback in production process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Work Process in the Informational Paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional job polarization (low skilled, high skilled clerical and highly specialized task) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi skilling and more responsibility. (Job titles such as Assistant Manager.) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>The Effects of Information Technology on Employment: Toward a Jobless Society? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment as predicted did not occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment growth positive in all regions namely US, Japan and Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Employment Trends (1997-2007) by ILO, later in presentation. ( Click here ) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New jobs created, old jobs depressed, however on quantitative analysis (Job created .minus. Job lost) varied from region to region, due to several other factors such as government policies. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Work and Information Divide: Flex-timers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working time: flex, means unconstrained by tradition 35-40 hours per week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job stability: no commitment to future employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: large concentration at work place, however increase in proportion of outside workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employer and employee contracts: less commitment than traditional contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More freedom, self employment, and temporary help on the rise. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Status of Employment Shares in total employment, 2007 in all regions (%) </li></ul>Source: ILO, Global Employment Trends Model, November 2007
  23. 23. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Work and Information Divide: Flex-timers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US model to deal with labor shortage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-traditional incentive such as stock options. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of immigrant labor in both highly skilled and unskilled occupations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary of JIT labor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What model Europe practiced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch model: moderate wage increase however preserve core jobs in the industry. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion to temporary, part-time and other flexible forms of employment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Information Technology and the Restructuring of Capital-Labor Relation: Social Dualism or Fragmented Societies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity and profitability ( ↑ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor protection ( ↓ ) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Information Technology and the Restructuring of Capital-Labor Relation: Social Dualism or Fragmented Societies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top and Bottom layer ( ↑ ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer ( ↓ ), rate of decline varied from country to country. It is dependent on political climate and position in global competition. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Transformation of Work and Employment <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New social structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disjoint labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of individualism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Showing up of network society </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>Adhoc committee miscalculation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation : computers will replicate all models by which human process information. { Statement was partly correct } </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: Major upheaval in nature of work, not mass unemployment. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>“divisions of labor” words by Adam Smith, new meaning in computer age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor between computers and humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing division within human labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can or cannot do valued work in computers world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two above has created the divide. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>To bridge the divide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rethink training and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify who (computer vis a vis humans) is good at what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify well paid work in now and in future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How people can learn the new skills in the computerized world. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>How work has changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computerization new jobs and destroyed old. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression: clerical and blue collar jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cafeteria workers, security guards {held by working poor} </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and managers, doctors, lawyers, engineers etc. {held by upper part} </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Traits: higher pay, extensive skills, use of computers to increase productivity. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. New Divisions of Labor <ul><li>How work has changed </li></ul><ul><li>Summary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper and Lower ( ↑ ) – Intermediaries ( ↓) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Why People Still Matter <ul><li>11.Nov.1999 Liffe closed, now Euronext. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Euronext – digital, many other exchanges joined. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>September 2001, Dr. Stephen Saltz used computers for better diagnostics. </li></ul><ul><li>Computerization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced Traders, however could only complement Doctor’s diagnostic skills. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Why People Still Matter <ul><li>Rules – step by step : computerized </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Rail Ticketing, Flight enquiry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pattern – solving new problem referring an old existing pattern : not computerized. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception : difficult to program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreting what is perceived: even human differs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Why People Still Matter <ul><li>Can computers substitute humans in all jobs </li></ul><ul><li>No, its not easy. However computers can complement humans by providing large information at low cost. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: echocardiograph </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Boeing – Use of CATIA, CNC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersed manufacturing, low cost production and new foreign customers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>What characterizes use of a new computer application </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt computer, gain a particular competitive advantage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize computer potential, reorganize work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create new jobs and destroy old jobs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Computerization: Employment or Unemployment ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With reference to Herbert Simon’s 1960 essay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans and computers both will be used, however in areas of their respective comparative advantage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More output, low cost, higher income, more customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bestUse (Humans, Computers) = Mass employment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. How Computers Change Work and Pay Source: ILO, Global Employment Trends Model, November 2007
  39. 39. How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Economy’s job mix in computer’s world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two schools of thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers – low skilled jobs, Humans – move to high skilled jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers – high skilled jobs, Humans – forced to menial jobs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Predictions by Herbert Simon, in his essay </li></ul><ul><li>Blue-collar workers – ( ↓ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Machine maintenance workers – ( ↑) </li></ul><ul><li>Clerical workers – ( ↓) </li></ul><ul><li>Salespeople – ( ↑) </li></ul><ul><li>Managers – ( ↑) </li></ul>
  41. 41. How Computers Change Work and Pay Source : News Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. Released: Tuesday, December 4, 2007 Top 10 industries with largest wage and salary employment growth, 2006 - 2016
  42. 42. How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Workers skills and New Nature of Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert thinking – no rule based solution; Humans, computers will only complement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex communication – interacting with other humans; humans only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine manual/cognitive tasks – rule based; candidate for computerization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non routine manual tasks – involving optical and fine muscle control; human </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. How Computers Change Work and Pay <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant drive to develop, produce, and market new products depends on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans ability to manage and solve analytical problems and communicate new information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above keeps Expert Thinking and Complex Communication in strong demand. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. References <ul><li>ILO, Global employment trends : January 2008. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home page: ( http://www.ilo.org/global/lang--en/index.htm ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home page: ( http:// www.bls.gov / ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>US Bureau of the Census </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home page: ( http:// www.census.gov / ) </li></ul></ul></ul>

×