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Computing History Part2


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Computing History Part2

  1. 1. <ul><li>“ The semiconductor density is the driving force, and as you reach new densities, new machines pop out.” Gordon Bell. </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in chip density made an impact on calculators. </li></ul><ul><li>Notable are HP-65, programmable calculators, introduced as a personal computer. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Created a market with long production runs, thereby getting economies of </li></ul><ul><li>scale and low price. </li></ul><ul><li>First consumer market for logic chips. </li></ul><ul><li>Unleasher creative force among users. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the rise of “hacker culture” of MIT. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the rise of user groups, support magazines etc, indicating that computing </li></ul><ul><li>was a mass phenomenon, as HP could not afford a trained sales force which could </li></ul><ul><li>train customers to get the best out of the product. </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of supporting infrastructure would later become critical to the industry, </li></ul><ul><li>and become an industry on its own. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Microprocessor <ul><li>Gordon Moore, founder of Intel, noted that the number of transistors that one </li></ul><ul><li>could place on a single chip, doubled every year. </li></ul><ul><li>If enough transistors were placed on a single chip, it would make a general </li></ul><ul><li>computer </li></ul><ul><li>1971, the first microprocessor was developed at Intel. </li></ul><ul><li>A general purpose chip with a few instructions, and most other operations </li></ul><ul><li>realised by a combination of these instructions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The role of hobbyists <ul><li>Hobbyists played a key role in the development of the computing industry. </li></ul><ul><li>They made the microprocessor based systems practical. </li></ul><ul><li>A magazine announced a $400 kit, which one could assemble into a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Once again this inspired extensive user support, and the lack of certain </li></ul><ul><li>capabilities inspired certain innovations, like the floppy disks. </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC was deverloped to fit into little memory, and yet gave impressive </li></ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Augmenting Human Intellect </li></ul><ul><li>DEC bet the company on the VAX, with a virtual memory, and MIPS, which became a benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>POTS to OLTP -> a use of terminals for online access appeared, tailored for specific applications. Like the SABRE. </li></ul><ul><li>Wang Labs, paved the way for office automation, by developing word processing softwares. </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox PARC. Research done at the labs, defined interactive computing as we know it today. The Mouse, WIMP. </li></ul><ul><li>The move of research from universities to PARC, forced cost and marketing onto the products. </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Jobs and Wozniak developed the Apple II, which was one of the first instances where aesthetic considerations influenced design. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM PC influenced MS-DOS </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Clones. </li></ul><ul><li>Compaq, developed an IBM Compatible portable computer </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenix made an IBM Compatibe bios chip. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon, Dell and compaq would make more money selling IBM Compatible </li></ul><ul><li>machines than IBM would </li></ul><ul><li>The winner was MS, selling software to all. </li></ul><ul><li>This era brought S/w to the fore. H/w no longer became the driving force </li></ul><ul><li>Of computing. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>UNIX and the NET </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX, developed at AT & T Bell labs, became the main reason for the </li></ul><ul><li>eclipsing of mainframes and minicomputers. </li></ul><ul><li>Provided an alternative to those ancient elephants. Small computers, networked </li></ul><ul><li>Together, would provide an alternative to those machines. </li></ul><ul><li>The network was the Ethernet, developed at PARC. </li></ul><ul><li>DEC, once again bet the company on VAX. Provided the VAX with small </li></ul><ul><li>computers networked together. </li></ul><ul><li>DEC phased out the PDP-10. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>RISC Architectures. </li></ul><ul><li>Henessey and Patterson, developed the architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Small number of instructions offered a way of improving processor speed. </li></ul><ul><li>SUN SPARC overcame any skepticism of the RISC. </li></ul><ul><li>With this, SUN took the advantage open systems, general purpose machines, </li></ul><ul><li>Offering good performance at low prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet. </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled the introduction of LAN’s, which paved the way for the PC to completely </li></ul><ul><li>Invade the corporate offices. </li></ul><ul><li>The internet. Descended from ARPAnet. Funding was from the ARPA and NSF. </li></ul><ul><li>GOPHER -> first routing protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosaic -> Browser. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Further developments. HTML, HTTP, www, hypertext. The internet is often described as the culmination of all developments in computing.