Computer Generations


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Computer Generations

  1. 1. COMPUTER GENERATIONS By: Agulto, Bangayan and Santos
  2. 2. HISTORY OF COMPUTERS The first computer were people. That is, electronic computers (and the earlier mechanical computers) were given this name because they performed the work that had previously been assigned to people.
  3. 3. HISTORY OF COMPUTERS "Computer" was originally a job title: it was used to describe those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs.
  4. 4. History of Computers This picture shows what were known as "counting tables" [photo courtesy of IBM] A typical computer operation back when computers were people.
  5. 5. A very old abacus
  6. 6. A more modern abacus. Note how the abacus is really just a representation of the human fingers: the 5 lower rings on each rod represent the 5 fingers and the 2 upper rings represent the 2 hands
  7. 7. History of Computers In 1617 an eccentric (some say mad) Scotsman named John Napier invented logarithms, which are a technology that allows multiplication to be performed via addition. The magic ingredient is the logarithm of each operand, which was originally obtained from a printed table. But Napier also invented an alternative to tables, where the logarithm values were carved on ivory sticks which are now called Napier's Bones.
  8. 8. History of Computers An original set of A more modern set of Napier's Bones [photo Napier's Bones courtesy IBM]
  9. 9. History of Computers Napier's invention led directly to the slide rule, first built in England in 1632 and still in use in the 1960's by the NASA engineers of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs which landed men on the moon.
  10. 10. History of Computers Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made drawings of gear-driven calculating machines but apparently never built any. A Leonardo da Vinci drawing showing gears arranged for computing
  11. 11. History of Computers The first gear-driven calculating machine to actually be built was probably the calculating clock, so named by its inventor, the German professor Wilhelm Schickard in 1623. This device got little publicity because Schickard died soon afterward in the bubonic plague.
  12. 12. History of Computers In 1642 Blaise Pascal, at age 19, invented the Pascaline as an aid for his father who was a tax collector. Pascal built 50 of this gear-driven one-function calculator (it could only add) but couldn't sell many because of their exorbitant cost and because they really weren't that accurate (at that time it was not possible to fabricate gears with the required precision).
  13. 13. History of Computers Pascal's Pascaline [photo © 2002 IEEE]
  14. 14. History of Computers A 6 digit model for those who couldn't afford the 8 digit model
  15. 15. History of Computers A Pascaline opened up so you can observe the gears and cylinders which rotated to display the numerical result
  16. 16. History of Computers Just a few years after Pascal, the German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (co-inventor with Newton of calculus) managed to build a four-function (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) calculator that he called the stepped reckoner because, instead of gears, it employed fluted drums having ten flutes arranged around their circumference in a stair-step fashion. Although the stepped reckoner employed the decimal number system (each drum had 10 flutes), Leibniz was the first to advocate use of the binary number system which is fundamental to the operation of modern computers. Leibniz is considered one of the greatest of the philosophers but he died poor and alone
  17. 17. History of Computers Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner (have you ever heard "calculating" referred to as "reckoning"?)
  18. 18. History of Computers In 1801 the Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a power loom that could base its weave (and hence the design on the fabric) upon a pattern automatically read from punched wooden cards, held together in a long row by rope. Descendents of these punched cards have been in use ever since (remember the "hanging chad" from the Florida presidential ballots of the year 2000?).
  19. 19. History of Computers Jacquard's Loom showing the threads and the punched cards
  20. 20. History of Computers By selecting particular cards for Jacquard's loom you defined the woven pattern [photo © 2002 IEEE]
  21. 21. History of Computers A close-up of a Jacquard card
  22. 22. History of Computers This tapestry was woven by a Jacquard loom Jacquard's technology was a real boon to mill owners, but put many loom operators out of work. Angry mobs smashed Jacquard looms and once attacked Jacquard himself. History is full of examples of labor unrest following technological innovation yet most studies show that, overall, technology has actually increased the number of jobs.
  23. 23. History of Computers By 1822 the English mathematician Charles Babbage was proposing a steam driven calculating machine the size of a room, which he called the Difference Engine. This machine would be able to compute tables of numbers, such as logarithm tables.
  24. 24. History of Computers A small section of the type of mechanism employed in Babbage's Difference Engine [photo © 2002 IEEE]
  25. 25. History of Computers Babbage was not deterred, and by then was on to his next brainstorm, which he called the Analytic Engine. This device, large as a house and powered by 6 steam engines, would be more general purpose in nature because it would be programmable, thanks to the punched card technology of Jacquard. But it was Babbage who made an important intellectual leap regarding the punched cards. In the Jacquard loom, the presence or absence of each hole in the card physically allows a colored thread to pass or stops that thread (you can see this clearly in the earlier photo).
  26. 26. History of Computers Babbage saw that the pattern of holes could be used to represent an abstract idea such as a problem statement or the raw data required for that problem's solution. Babbage saw that there was no requirement that the problem matter itself physically pass thru the holes.
  27. 27. History of Computers Furthermore, Babbage realized that punched paper could be employed as a storage mechanism, holding computed numbers for future reference. Because of the connection to the Jacquard loom, Babbage called the two main parts of his Analytic Engine the "Store" and the "Mill", as both terms are used in the weaving industry. The Store was where numbers were held and the Mill was where they were "woven" into new results. In a modern computer these same parts are called the memory unit and the central processing unit (CPU).
  28. 28. History of Computers Babbage befriended Ada Byron, the daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron (Ada would later become the Countess Lady Lovelace by marriage). Though she was only 19, she was fascinated by Babbage's ideas and thru letters and meetings with Babbage she learned enough about the design of the Analytic Engine to begin fashioning programs for the still unbuilt machine.
  29. 29. History of Computers While Babbage refused to publish his knowledge for another 30 years, Ada wrote a series of "Notes" wherein she detailed sequences of instructions she had prepared for the Analytic Engine. The Analytic Engine remained unbuilt (the British government refused to get involved with this one) but Ada earned her spot in history as the first computer programmer.
  30. 30. History of Computers Ada invented the subroutine and was the first to recognize the importance of looping. Babbage himself went on to invent the modern postal system, cowcatchers on trains, and the ophthalmoscope, which is still used today to treat the eye.
  31. 31. History of Computers Hollerith's invention, known as the Hollerith desk, consisted of a card reader which sensed the holes in the cards, a gear driven mechanism which could count (using Pascal's mechanism which we still see in car odometers), and a large wall of dial indicators (a car speedometer is a dial indicator) to display the results of the count.
  32. 32. History of Computers An operator working at a Hollerith Desk like the one below
  33. 33. History of Computers A few Hollerith desks still exist today [photo courtesy The Computer Museum]
  34. 34. History of Computers Incidentally, the Hollerith census machine was the first machine to ever be featured on a magazine cover.
  35. 35. History of Computers A central shaft driven by an outside waterwheel and connected to each machine by overhead belts was the customary power source for all the machines in a factory
  36. 36. History of Computers Here's a close-up of one of the Mark I's four paper tape readers. A paper tape was an improvement over a box of punched cards as anyone who has ever dropped -- and thus shuffled -- his "stack" knows.
  37. 37. History of Computers One of the primary programmers for the Mark I was a woman, Grace Hopper. Hopper found the first computer "bug": a dead moth that had gotten into the Mark I and whose wings were blocking the reading of the holes in the paper tape. The word "bug" had been used to describe a defect since at least 1889 but Hopper is credited with coining the word "debugging" to describe the work to eliminate program faults.
  38. 38. COMPUTER GENERATIONS The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. A generation refers to the state of improvement in the product development process. This term is also used in the different advancements of new computer technology.
  39. 39. COMPUTER GENERATIONS Each generation of computers is characterized by major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.
  40. 40. FIRST GENERATION 1940 – 1956 VACUUM TUBES The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.
  41. 41. FIRST GENERATION Front View of Vacuum Tubes
  42. 42. FIRST GENERATION Rear View of Vacuum Tubes
  43. 43. FIRST GENERATION The First High-Speed, General-Purpose Computer Using Vacuum Tubes: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) The ENIAC team (Feb 14, 1946). Left to right: J. Presper Eckert, Jr.; John Grist Brainerd; Sam Feltman; Herman H. Goldstine; John W. Mauchly; Harold Pender; Major General G. L. Barnes; Colonel Paul N. Gillon.
  44. 44. FIRST GENERATION Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) 1946 Used vacuum tubes (not mechanical devices) to do its calculations The first electronic computer Funded by the U.S. Army Could not stored programs (its set of instructions)
  45. 45. FIRST GENERATION The first stored computer program used for EDVAC (Electronic Discreet Variable Computer)
  46. 46. FIRST GENERATION The Manchester University Mark I (prototype)
  47. 47. FIRST GENERATION Max Newman headed up for the effort at Manchester University Where the Manchester Mark I went into operation in June 1948 – becoming the First Stored-Program Computer Maurice Wilkes, a British scientist at Cambridge University completed the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) in 1949 – two years before EDVAC was finished
  48. 48. History of Computers The first computer bug [photo © 2002 IEEE]
  49. 49. History of Computers On a humorous note, the principal designer of the Mark I, Howard Aiken of Harvard, estimated in 1947 that six electronic digital computers would be sufficient to satisfy the computing needs of the entire United States. IBM had commissioned this study to determine whether it should bother developing this new invention into one of its standard products (up until then computers were one-of-a-kind items built by special arrangement).
  50. 50. History of Computers (that's just the operator's console, here's the rest of its 33 foot length:)
  51. 51. History of Computers
  52. 52. History of Computers The Apple 1 which was sold as a do-it-yourself kit (without the lovely case seen here)
  53. 53. History of Computers Typical wiring in an early mainframe computer [photo courtesy The Computer Museum]
  54. 54. History of Computers It's humorous to remember that in between the Stretch machine (which would be called a mainframe today) and the Apple I (a desktop computer) there was an entire industry segment referred to as mini- computers such as the following PDP-12 computer of 1969:
  55. 55. History of Computers The Atanasoff-Berry Computer [photo © 2002 IEEE]
  56. 56. History of Computers Another candidate for granddaddy of the modern computer was Colossus, built during World War II by Britain for the purpose of breaking the cryptographic codes used by Germany. Britain led the world in designing and building electronic machines dedicated to code breaking, and was routinely able to read coded Germany radio transmissions. But Colossus was definitely not a general purpose, reprogrammable machine. Note the presence of pulleys in the two photos of Colossus below:
  57. 57. History of Computers Two views of the code-breaking Colossus of Great Britain
  58. 58. History of Computers The Harvard Mark I: an electro-mechanical computer
  59. 59. History of Computers The Harvard Mark I, the Atanasoff-Berry computer, and the British Colossus all made important contributions. American and British computer pioneers were still arguing over who was first to do what, when in 1965 the work of the German Konrad Zuse was published for the first time in English. Scooped! Zuse had built a sequence of general purpose computers in Nazi Germany. The first, the Z1, was built between 1936 and 1938 in the parlor of his parent's home.
  60. 60. History of Computers The Zuse Z1 in its residential setting
  61. 61. History of Computers The title of forefather of today's all-electronic digital computers is usually awarded to ENIAC, which stood for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator.
  62. 62. History of Computers ENIAC was built at the University of Pennsylvania between 1943 and 1945 by two professors, John Mauchly and the 24 year old J. Presper Eckert, who got funding from the war department after promising they could build a machine that would replace all the "computers", meaning the women who were employed calculating the firing tables for the army's artillery guns.
  63. 63. History of Computers The day that Mauchly and Eckert saw the first small piece of ENIAC work, the persons they ran to bring to their lab to show off their progress were some of these female computers (one of whom remarked, "I was astounded that it took all this equipment to multiply 5 by 1000").
  64. 64. History of Computers Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator
  65. 65. History of Computers To perform this computation on ENIAC you had to rearrange a large number of patch cords and then locate three particular knobs on that vast wall of knobs and set them to 3, 1, and 4.
  66. 66. FIRST GENERATION UNIVERSAL AUTOMATIC COMPUTER (UNIVAC) – the first general purpose computer for commercial use
  68. 68. SECOND GENERATION Crystalline mineral materials called semiconductors could be used in the design of a device called TRANSISTOR Transistor replaced vacuum tubes Transistor is a device composed of semi-conductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes a circuit Invented in 1947 at Bell Labs
  69. 69. SECOND GENERATION Magnetic tape and disks began to replace punch card as external storage devices
  70. 70. SECOND GENERATION Magnetic cores (very small donut – shaped magnets that could polarized in one of two directions to represent data) strung on wire within the computer became the primary internal storage technology Uses high level programming languages FORTRAN COBOL
  72. 72. THIRD GENERATION The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.
  73. 73. THIRD GENERATION Individual transistors were replaced by integrated circuits
  74. 74. THIRD GENERATION Magnetic tape and disks completely replace punch cards as external storage devices
  75. 75. THIRD GENERATION Magnetic core internal memories began to give way to a new form, METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR (MOS) memory Operating System was born Advanced programming language like BASIC was developed Bill Gates and Microsoft started in 1975
  76. 76. THIRD GENERATION Intel 4004 had 2,250 transistors
  77. 77. THIRD GENERATION The First Microprocessor in 1971 Intel 4004 had 2,250 transistors Four-bit chunks (four 1’s and 0’s) 108 KHz 0.6 Mips (million instructions/sec) Pentium 133 – 300 Mips Called MICROCHIP
  78. 78. THIRD GENERATION The Birth of Personal Computer MITS ALTAIR – 1975 256 byte memory 2 MHz Intel 8080 chip Just a box with flashing lights Cost $395 kit, $495 assembled
  80. 80. FOURTH GENERATION The microelectronics revolution is what allowed the amount of hand- crafted wiring seen in the prior photo to be mass- produced as an integrated circuit which is a small sliver of silicon the size of your thumbnail .
  81. 81. FOURTH GENERATION Large Scale and Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits Microprocessors that contained memory, logic and control circuits (an entire CPU) on a single chip Apple II was released to public in 1977 by Stephen Wozniak and Steven Jobs Initially sold for $1,195 (no monitor) had 16k RAM
  82. 82. FOURTH GENERATION IBM PC was introduced in 1981 Debut with MS – DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) First Apple Mac was released in 1984 Fourth generation language was released Visicalc, Lotus 123, dBase, MS Word, etc. GUI was used in PC’s
  83. 83. FOURTH GENERATION Ms Windows debuts in 1983 Windows 3.11 was released in 1990
  84. 84. FIFTH GENERATION Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
  85. 85. FIFTH GENERATION Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that humans consider intelligent. The ability to create intelligent machines has intrigued humans since ancient times, and today with the advent of the computer and 50 years of research into AI programming techniques, the dream of smart machines is becoming a reality. Researchers are creating systems which can mimic human thought, understand speech, beat the best human chess player, and countless other feats never before possible. Find out how the military is applying AI logic to its hi-tech systems, and how in the near future Artificial Intelligence may impact our lives.
  86. 86. FIFTH GENERATION Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligence includes: Games Playing Expert Systems Natural Language Neural Networks Robotics
  87. 87. FIFTH GENERATION Sample Videos for Artificial Intelligence: Wonderbots Astroboy Robotics
  88. 88. COMPUTER GENERATIONS Bibliography Kenneth C. Laudon, Carol Guercio Traver, Jane P. Laudon, Information Technology and Systems, Cambridge, MA: Course Technology, 1996. Stan Augarten, BIT By BIT: An Illustrated History of Computers (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1984). R. Moreau, The Computer Comes of Age: The People, the Hardware, and the Software, translated by J. Howlett (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984). Telephone History Web Site. Microsoft Museum. Philip B. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design, 2nd ed., New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.