A brief history of computers


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A Brief History of Computers

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A brief history of computers

  1. 1. Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie A Brief History of Computers From the early days to the mainframes Faculdade de Computação e Informática São Paulo, Brasil
  2. 2. To plan your future wisely is necessary to know the past of the tools you will use
  3. 3. Sometimes planning is difficult since we face the arrogance of the owners of the truth…• "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.“ - Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943• "Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.“ - Popular Mechanics, forecasting the relentless march of science, 1949• "I have traveled the length and breadth of this country and talked with the best people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that wont last out the year.“ - The editor in charge of business books for Prentice Hall, 1957• "There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.“ - Ken Olson, president, chairman and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977• "640k ought to be enough for anybody.“ - Bill Gates, 1981• "We dont like their sound, and guitar music is on the way out.“ - Decca Recording Co. rejecting the Beatles, 1962.
  4. 4. So, lets talk a littleabout the history ofcomputers – maybeit can help you…
  5. 5. The early days
  6. 6. Abacus – c. 4000 BCE On the left, you see two abacuses (abaci is also correct). On both abacuses, we see the number 1998. The top area of each abacus is used for fives, and the bottom area is used for ones. Abacuses are used for doing arithmetic. When doing arithmetic, you move the beads. The position of the beads represents the sum, or product, so far. It is how you can remember the partial sum or product. Experts in the use of the abacus can be very fast (and accurate), often faster than an expert with a calculator, especially addition and subtraction. The abacus is still a mainstay of basic computation in some societies.
  7. 7. Slide rulesThe slide rule, also known colloquially as a slipstick,is amechanical analog computer. The slide rule is usedprimarily for multiplication and division, and also forfunctions such as roots, logarithms and trigonometry, but isnot normally used for addition or subtraction.William Oughtred and others developed the slide rule in the17th century based on the emerging work on logarithms byJohn Napier. Napier
  8. 8. Before the advent of the pocketcalculator, the slide rule was themost commonly used calculationtool in science and engineering.The use of slide rules continuedto grow through the 1950s and1960s even as digital computingdevices were being graduallyintroduced; but around 1974 theelectronic scientific calculatormade it largely obsolete and mostsuppliers left the business.
  9. 9. Wilhelm Schickard (1592 –1635) wasa German scientist who designed acalculating machine in 1623.Unfortunately a fire destroyed themachine as it was being built in 1624and Schickard decided to abandon hisproject.Unknown to the world for more thanthree centuries it was rediscovered in1957 and therefore had no impact onthe development of mechanicalcalculators
  10. 10. Blaise Pascal, a famous Frenchphilosopher and mathematicianinvented the first digital calculator, thePascaline, to help his father with hiswork collecting taxes.He worked on it for three years between1642 and 1645.The device resembled a mechanicalcalculator of the 1940s. It could addand subtract by the simple rotation ofdials on the machine’s face.
  11. 11. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646 –1716) was aGerman philosopher and mathematician.While working on adding automatic multiplicationand division to Pascals calculator, he was the firstto describe a pinwheel calculator in 1685 andinvented the Leibniz wheel, used in thearithmometer, the first mass-produced mechanicalcalculator.He also refined the binary number system, which isat the foundation of virtually all digital computers.
  12. 12. Joseph Marie Charles, nicknamed Jacquard (1752– 1834, played an important role in the development of the earliest programmable loom (the "Jacquard loom"), which in turn played an important role in the development of other programmable machines, such as computers.• This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on aJacquard loom and required 24,000 punched cardsto create (1839).• It was only produced to order.• Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits ; itinspired him in using perforated cards in hisanalytical engine
  13. 13. Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar (1785–1870) was a Frenchinventor and entrepreneur best known for designing, patentingand manufacturing the first commercially successful mechanicalcalculator, the Arithmometer.The device was manufactured from 1851 to 1915 - there wereabout 5,000 machines built during that timeEventually about twenty European companies built clones of theArithmometer until the beginning of World War II.
  14. 14. Charles Babbage (1791 – 1871)was an English mathematicianand is recognized today as theFather of Computers becausehis impressive designs for theDifference Engine andAnalytical Engine foreshadowedthe invention of the modernelectronic digital computer.
  15. 15. The Difference Engine wasnever fully built. Babbage Thedrew up the blueprints for it Difference Enginewhile still an undergrad atCambridge University inEngland.But while it was in process ofbeing manufactured, he got abetter idea and left this workunfinished in favor of theAnalytical Engine illustratedon the next slide.
  16. 16. The Analytical Engine waseventually built completely in thelatter half of the 19th century, byGeorg and Edvard Schuetz as perBabbage’s blueprints.Film footage exists of themachine in operation, and it is The Analytical Engine incorporated antruly a sight to behold, a arithmetical unit, control flow in the form oftestament not only to Babbage’s conditional branching and loops, and integratedgenius, but also to the memory, making it the first Turing-completemanufacturing prowess of the design for a general-purpose computer.age.
  17. 17. Lady Augusta Ada, Countess of Lovelace(1815 – 1856), was a mathematician whohelped Babbage in his work.Above all, she documented his work, whichBabbage never could bother to do. As aresult we know about Babbage at all.Lady Augusta Ada also wrote programs tobe run on Babbage’s machines, what madeher the first computer programmer.
  18. 18. Electro-mechanical computers
  19. 19. Hermann Hollerith (1860 – 1920) worked as a statisticianfor the U.S. Census Bureau in the 1880s and 1890s.The 1880 census took seven years to be processed.Hollerith deduced that the next census would take longerthan ten years.So, as the saying goes, “necessity became the mother ofinvention” and Hollerith designed and built the CensusCounting Machine illustrated in the next slide.
  20. 20. Punched cards (a la Jacquard looms) wereused to collect the census data (the origin ofthe IBM punched cards) and the cards werefed into a sorting machine before being readby the census counting machine whichrecorded and tabulated the results.The 1890 census took just three months toprocess even though quite a bit more datawas collected than ever before.
  21. 21. Hollerith’s company, the TabulatingMachine Company, became theComputer Tabulating RecordingCompany in 1913 after merging withanother company that produced asimilar product.1917: CTRC starts operations in Brazil;the first big project was the 1920censusIn 1924, the company was renamedInternational Business Machines (IBM)
  22. 22. Konrad Zuse and the Z3• The Z3 was an electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) , a German scientist.• The Z3 was one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Program code and data were stored on punched 35 mm film.• The Z3 was completed in Berlin in 1941. The German Aircraft Research Institute used it to perform statistical analyses of wing flutter; the machine was destroyed in 1943 during an Allied bombardment.• Zuse asked the German government for money to develop a new machine, but funding was denied, since such development was deemed "not war-important"
  23. 23. While being a professor of Physics at Harvard, Howard Aiken (1900 – 1973) wassupported by IBM to build the ASCC computer (Automatic Sequence ControlledCalculator), aka Harvard Mark I.The computer had mechanical relays (switches) which flip-flopped back and forth torepresent mathematical data. It was huge, weighting some 35 tons with 500 miles ofwiring.
  24. 24. Rear Admiral Grace MurrayHopper (1906 –1992) was anAmerican computer scientist andUnited States Navy officer.A pioneer in the field, she was oneof the first computerprogrammers, and developed thefirst compiler for a computerprogramming language.She conceptualized the idea ofmachine-independentprogramming languages, whichled to the development of COBOL.
  25. 25. One day, the program Dr. Hopper was running gave incorrect resultsand, upon examination, a moth was found blocking one of therelays. The bug was removed and the program performed toperfection. Since then, a program error in a computer has beencalled a bug
  26. 26. From the electro-mechanical computers to mainframes
  27. 27. The vacuum tubeIn electronics, a vacuum tube ("tube" or "valve") is adevice that can be used to replace electromechanicalrelays, because it is fasterValves made electronic computing possible for thefirst time, but the cost and relatively short Mean TimeBetween Failure (MBTF) of valves were limitingfactors in the 1930s.Later work confirmed that tube unreliability was not asserious an issue as generally believed; the 1946ENIAC, with over 17,000 tubes, had a tube failure(which took 15 minutes to locate and fix) on averageevery two days.
  28. 28. Alan Mathison Turing (1912 – 1954),was an English mathematician,cryptographer and computer scientist.He was highly influential in thedevelopment of computer science,providing a formalization of the conceptsof "algorithm" and "computation" withthe Turing machine, which played asignificant role in the creation of themodern computer.Turing is widely considered to be thefather of computer science and artificialintelligence.
  29. 29. During WWII Turing made a major contribution to the development of a sophisticated computing machine called Colossus which was used to help crack the codes of the German Enigma Machine. The Enigma machine was an electro-mechanical machine used for the encryption and decryption of secret messages, widely used for the Germans in the war. Turing’s work helped Allied codebreakers to decrypt a vast number of messages that had been enciphered using the Enigma. The intelligence gleaned from this source was a substantial aid to the Allied war effort. The BBC broadcasted in 1991 the serie The dream machine‘. You can know something more about Turing and his work visitingGermans working with the Enigma http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=NbhbssXWDAE&feature=related
  30. 30. The ColossusEleven Colossuswere built duringWorld War II (oneMark 1, ten Mark2) – the firststarted running inFeb 1944.Colossus Mark 1 contained 1,500 electronic valves;Colossus Mark 2 with 2,400 valves was both 5 timesfaster and simpler to operate than Mark 1, greatlyspeeding the decoding process.
  31. 31. Alan Turing: a tragic character• Turing was an athlete: he achieved world-class Marathon standards - his best time was only 11 minutes slower than the winner in the 1948 Olympic Games. In a 1948 cross- country race he finished ahead of Tom Richards who won the silver medal in the Olympics.• Turings homosexuality resulted in a criminal prosecution in 1952, when homosexual acts were still illegal in the United Kingdom. He accepted treatment with female hormones (chemical castration) as an alternative to prison• He died in 1954, several weeks before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning - an inquest determined it was suicide. When his body was discovered an apple lay half-eaten beside his bed, and although the apple was not tested for cyanide, it is speculated that this was the mean by which a fatal dose was delivered.• On 10 September 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for the way in which Turing was treated after the war
  32. 32. The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and ComputerThis 1946 photographshows ENIAC , the firstgeneral purposeelectronic computer,housed at theUniversity ofPennsylvania.Developed in secretstarting in 1943, ENIACwas designed tocalculate artillery firingtables for the US Army.
  33. 33. The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and ComputerWhen ENIAC was announced in 1946 itwas heralded in the press as a "GiantBrain“ (in Brazil, “Cérebro Eletrônico”). Itboasted speeds one thousand times fasterthan electro-mechanical machines.The inventors of ENIAC promoted thespread of the new technologies through aseries of lectures on the construction ofelectronic digital computers at theUniversity of Pennsylvania in 1946, knownas the Moore School Lectures.
  34. 34. The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and ComputerBesides its speed, the most remarkable thingabout ENIAC was its size and complexity.ENIAC contained 17,468 valves, around 5million hand-soldered joints. It weighed 30 ton.,was roughly 2.4 m × 0.9 m × 30 m and tookup 167 m2.Input was possible from an IBM card reader,and an IBM card punch was used for output.These cards could be used to produce printedoutput offline using an IBM accountingmachine, such as the IBM 405. Programming the ENIACThe task of programming was complex. After the program was figured out on paper,the process of getting the program "into" the ENIAC by manipulating its switches andcables took days. This was followed by a period of verification and debugging.
  35. 35. John von Neumann was amathematician working on thehydrogen bomb project and becameaware of the ENIACVon Neumann came up with the brightidea of using part of the ENIACinternal memory (called PrimaryMemory) to “store” the program insidethe computer and have the computergo get the instructions from its ownmemory - the stored program conceptwas born!
  36. 36. Scandal!ENIAC was conceived and designed by John Mauchly and J. PresperEckert of the University of Pennsylvania – they stole ideas from JohnVincent Atanasoff , from the Iowa State University and Clifford Berry.Mauchly and Eckert successfully filed for the patent as inventors of theelectronic digital computer, ignoring Berry and Atanasoff’s work.In 1972, this injustice was rectified when Honeywell (for Atanasoff)successfully challenged Sperry Rand (the company that acquiredEckert and Mauchly’s patent), and Atanasoff and Berry were creditedas being the inventors of the electronic digital computer.-.
  37. 37. EDSAC• The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was a UK made computer.• The machine, having been inspired by John von Neumanns ideas was the first practical stored-program electronic computer.• EDSAC ran its first program on 6 May 1949• Later the project was supported by J. Lyons & Co. Ltd., a British restaurant-chain, food manufacturing and hotel conglomerate founded in 1887, who were rewarded with the first commercially applied computer, LEO I, based on the EDSAC design.
  38. 38. The Transistor era• The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. It replaced the valves• Following its release in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller, faster and cheaper computers.• John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley (seated) working in the laboratory where they built the first transistor. Electronics magazine called the device a "Crystal Triode."
  39. 39. What was the first thing that webuilt with this miraculous new technology?
  40. 40. A hearing aid ! ….1953 Zenith Royal-T hearing aid - 3” tall, 2.5” wide A prehistoric iPod?
  41. 41. Followedimmediately by the first “pocket radio” in 1954!
  42. 42. The TRADIC (for TRansistorized AirborneDIgital Computer) was the firsttransistorized computer, completed in 1954The project initially examined the feasibilityof constructing a transistorized airbornedigital computer.The TRADIC was small and light enough tobe installed in a B-52 Stratofortress
  43. 43. In the early 1950s, there were three main computers makers • UNIVAC • Burroughs • IBM
  44. 44. • March 1951: the Census Bureauaccepted delivery of the firstUNIVAC computer - RemingtonRand became the first Americanmanufacturers of a commercialcomputer system• Their first non-governmentcontract was for General ElectricsAppliance Park facility in Louisville,Kentucky, who used the UNIVACcomputer for a payroll application.
  45. 45. Univac was used to forecast the 1952 presidential election (USA) Polls gave the 1952 Presidential election to Adlai Stevenson. UNIVAC, star of CBS’ election coverage, predicted an Eisenhower landslide. UNIVAC was right. The computer’s TV debut captivated an audience already enthralled by technology and confronting new tools—and new terminology— almost daily.
  46. 46. Computers in popular culture“UNIVAC” became synonymouswith “computer” to theAmerican public in the 1950s.This comic book combinescomputerized matchmaking,which began in the late 1950s,with a popular television datingshow format
  47. 47. THE 2ND GENERATION COMPUTERS (from 1955)• Programming languages such as FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) andCOBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) were developed at thattime• Typical of that era were the IBM 1401 and Burroughs B200• Smaller in size• All transistorized• Reliable Burroughs B200 IBM 1401
  48. 48. In 1957 the first computercame to Brazil. It was aUnivac 120, purchased bythe State of Sao Paulo tocontrol the water supplyservice in the capital.We talked a lot about Univac, which was the first e bigger computermanufacturer and no longer exists. You can guess why? No planning, bad management!
  49. 49. In 1959 Anderson Clayton bought a IBM 305 RAMAC, the first computer in the Brazilian private sector RAMAC’s HDIBM 305 RAMAC, announced 1956, was the first commercial computer that used amoving head hard disk drive (5 MB, 1 ton) for secondary storage. RAMAC stood for"Random Access Method of Accounting and Control".
  50. 50. In the 60s, the world was in the middle ofthe space race. With that came the needto build lightweight and powerfulcomputers that could be embedded inrockets.NASA has spent billions of dollars on itsspace program in the hiring ofmanufacturers of transistors to perform aneven more radical miniaturization.Thus were created the first integratedcircuits, also called chips. Basically, a chipis an electronic component comprisinghundreds or thousands of transistors.This led to the third generation ofcomputers
  51. 51. Example of this time is the IBM 360, sold between 1964 and 1978
  52. 52. Programming in the 1960’s and 1970’sIBM programmer drawing a flowchart
  53. 53. ​ Data entry at the time could be made withpunched paper tape (replacing the punched cards)
  54. 54. Data were mainly stored in magnetictapes and disks, such as the IBM 2314 (1966, 30 mb)
  55. 55. Hard disk in 1980: 1 gb, 250 kg , US$ 81.000
  56. 56. From that point, mainframe computers have evolved to thepoint where they are today, even using elements also used in microcomputers
  57. 57. z10 EC – Under the covers (Model E56 or E64) Internal Processor Books, Memory, MBA and Batteries HCA cards (optional) Ethernet cables for Power internal System Supplies LAN connecting Flexible Service 2 x Support Processor (FSP) Elements cage controller cards InfiniBand I/O Interconnects 3x I/O 2 x Cooling cages UnitsFiber Quick Connect FICON & (FQC) Feature ESCON FQC (optional) 57
  58. 58. And to avoid this...
  59. 59. Os autores agradecem seus comentários através do vjbreternitz@mackenzie.brProf. Esp. Elisabete Panssonatto Breternitz Prof. Dr. Vivaldo José BreternitzAcad. Marta D. Magalhães Santos
  60. 60. vjbreternitz@mackenzie.br