• Cartographers use an imaginary grid of parallel
lines and vertical lines to locate points on Earth.
• The Equator circles Earth halfway between the
north and south poles separating Earth into two
equal halves called the Northern Hemisphere
and the Southern Hemisphere.
Latitude and Longitude
Lines of latitude are lines running parallel to
• Latitude is the distance in
degrees north or south of
Latitude is thus measured from 0° at the
to 90° at the poles.
• Locations north of the
equator are referred to
by degrees north
• Locations south of the
equator are referred to
by degrees south
– Each degree of latitude is equivalent to about
111 km (°) on Earth’s surface. 1° = 70 miles
– To locate positions on Earth more precisely,
cartographers break down degrees of latitude into
60 smaller units, called minutes (´). 1' = 1.2 miles
– A minute of latitude can be further divided into
seconds (´´). 1" = .02 miles
– Longitude is also divided into degrees, minutes,
– Another special lines of
Latitude are found at 66
½ North and 66 ½
South of the Equator.
In the Northern
66 ½ is called the
– In the Southern
Hemisphere, latitude 66
½ is known as the
Between the two tropics
and these lines of
Latitude are the Middle
Beyond Latitude 66 ½
North and South of the
Equator are the High
The Parallels are
specially noted to show
areas that get different
amounts of sunlight.
To locate positions in east and west directions,
cartographers use lines of longitude, also known
• Longitude is the distance in
degrees east or west of the
• The Prime Meridian,
representing 0° longitude,
is the reference point for
Points west of the prime meridian are numbered
from 0° to 180° west longitude (W).
• Points east of the prime
meridian are numbered from
0° to 180° east longitude
– Lines of longitude are not parallel; they are large
semicircles that extend vertically from pole to pole.
– The distances covered by
degrees of longitude vary
– One degree of longitude
varies from about 111 km
at the equator to essentially
the distance covered by a
point at the poles.
Degrees of Longitude
Locating Places with Coordinates
– Both latitude and longitude
are needed to precisely
locate positions on Earth.
– For example, the location
of New Orleans is
– Note that latitude comes
first in reference to the
coordinates of a
– Every time zone experiences this transition from one
day to the next, with the calendar advancing to the next
day at midnight.
– Each time you travel through a time zone, you gain or
lose time, eventually gaining or losing an entire day.
– The International Date Line, or 180° meridian,
serves as the transition line for calendar days.
– Traveling west across the International Date Line, you
would advance your calendar one day.
– Traveling east, you would move your calendar back
Because Earth takes about 24 hours to rotate once
on its axis, it is divided into 24 times zones, each
representing a different hour.
Each time zone is 15° wide, corresponding
roughly to lines of longitude.
• Time zone boundaries have been adjusted in
local areas for convenience.
There are six
zones in the
A Continent is a division of land on the
earth. It can also include pieces of land
such as islands. The Earth's total land
mass is about 29.2% of its total surface.
The seven continents are in the order
of their size:
• Continent – Largest land masses on the planet.
BIGGER than countries, states, counties, cities,
and your back yard
• Ocean – Largest body of water on the planet
BIGGER than seas, lakes, ponds, and mud
2. North America
3. South America
The LARGEST continent:
Asia - Home to 60% of the
The smallest continent is:
Australia – home to seven of the ten
North America – North America is the
third-largest continent in area, following
Asia and Africa, and the fourth in
population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.
The continent with the most
Africa with 53 countries – home to man-eating
lions, flesh-eating viruses, and poop-eating bugs.
The continent that is a giant desert is:
Antarctica – Population zero…and some