Understanding Longitude And Latitude


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Understanding Longitude And Latitude

  1. 1. Unnderstanding Longitude & Latitude
  2. 2. Typical Graph <ul><li>This is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with. </li></ul><ul><li>The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Typical Graph <ul><li>Each point has two values: </li></ul><ul><li>The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axis </li></ul><ul><li>The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis </li></ul>Y axis X axis
  4. 4. Typical Graph <ul><li>X value is always stated first </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by the Y value </li></ul><ul><li>The “origin” is the point where the 2 axes intersect with a value of (0,0) </li></ul>(0,0) (3,8) Y X (9,5)
  5. 5. Typical Graph <ul><li>A point can also have negative (-) values </li></ul><ul><li>Negative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Y values are below the origin </li></ul>X Y (-X,+Y) (+X,-Y) (+X,+Y) (-X,-Y) (0,0)
  6. 6. East West, North South on The Earth <ul><li>Let the X axis be the Equator. </li></ul><ul><li>Let the Y axis be the Prime Meridian that runs through Greenwich outside of London. </li></ul><ul><li>Lat/Long are the 2 grid points by which you can locate any point on earth. </li></ul>Y X
  7. 7. East West, North South on the Earth <ul><li>Let each of the four quarters then be designated by North or South and East or West. </li></ul>N S E W
  8. 8. East West, North South on the Earth <ul><li>The N tells us we’re north of the Equator. The S tells us we’re south of the Equator. </li></ul><ul><li>The E tells us that we’re east of the Prime Meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the Prime Meridian . </li></ul>(N, W) (N, E) (S, W) (S, E)
  9. 9. East West, North South on the Earth <ul><li>That means all points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the Equator and West of the Prime Meridian. </li></ul>(N, W) Prime Meridian
  10. 10. East West, North South on the Earth <ul><li>What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia? </li></ul>Prime Meridian ? If you said South and East , you’re right!
  11. 11. What is Latitude? <ul><li>Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis. </li></ul><ul><li>All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees latitude. </li></ul><ul><li>North pole = 90 °N </li></ul><ul><li>South pole = 90 °S </li></ul><ul><li>Values are expressed in terms of degrees. </li></ul>Y X 90 °S 90 °N
  12. 12. What is Latitude? <ul><li>Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. </li></ul>Y X 90 °S 90 °N This is also true of longitude.
  13. 13. What is Latitude? <ul><li>For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>37 °, 02’,51’’N </li></ul><ul><li>This is close to the latitude where you live. </li></ul>Y X 90 °S 90 °N
  14. 14. What is Longitude? <ul><li>Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis. </li></ul><ul><li>All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees longitude. </li></ul><ul><li>The earth is divided into two parts, or hemispheres, of east and west longitude. </li></ul>Y X 180 °W 180 °E
  15. 15. What is Longitude? <ul><li>The earth is divided into 360 equal slices (meridians) </li></ul><ul><li>180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian </li></ul>Y X 180 °W 180 °E
  16. 16. What is Latitude? <ul><li>Our latitude and longitude might be: </li></ul><ul><li>37 °, 03’,13’’N </li></ul><ul><li>76°, 29’, 45’’W </li></ul>Y X 90 °S 90 °N
  17. 17. So Where is (0,0)? <ul><li>The origin point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian. </li></ul><ul><li>(0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean. </li></ul>
  18. 18. See If You Can Tell In Which Quarter These Lon/Lats Are Located <ul><li>1. 41 °N, 21°E </li></ul><ul><li>2. 37°N, 76°W </li></ul><ul><li>3. 72°S, 141°W </li></ul><ul><li>4. 7°S, 23°W </li></ul><ul><li>5. 15°N, 29°E </li></ul><ul><li>6. 34°S, 151°E </li></ul>A B C D
  19. 19. <ul><li>1. B </li></ul><ul><li>2. A </li></ul><ul><li>3. C </li></ul><ul><li>4. C </li></ul><ul><li>5. B </li></ul><ul><li>6. D </li></ul>Let's See How You Did!
  20. 20. <ul><li>See if you can find those same latitude/longitude locations on a map! </li></ul>
  21. 21. In Summary!
  22. 22. Positioning on the Earth’s Surface Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface. Equator Latitude 0 o Latitude: ( 90 o N to 90 o S) Latitude 23½ o North Tropic of Cancer Latitude 23½ o South Tropic of Capricorn Longitude 30 o East Longitude 60 o East Longitude 30 o West Longitude 60 o West East is the direction of rotation of the Earth North Pole South Pole 23½ o 23½ o 66½ o 90 o 90 0 21 st June 22 nd December 22 nd Sept 20 th March 30 o E 60 o E 90 o E 90 o W 30 o W 60 o W Longitude 90 o East Longitude 90 o West Prime Meridian 0 o Longitude Longitude: (180 o E to 180 o W)
  23. 23. Now you’re ready to find some locations on a map!