• Land makes up 30% of the Earth's surface.
•7 continents are: North America, South America, Africa,
Europe, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica.
• The largest continent is Asia and the smallest Australia.
• Australia is the only continent which is also a country
• Antarctica is the only continent which is uninhabited
• Asia and Africa are joined by narrow strips of land, and
so are North and South America.
• Europe and Asia are actually one continuous land mass
as there is no water body which separates them.
• largest continent which makes up 8.7% of the Earth's total
surface area, and 29.5% of its land area. Largest of these are
Russia, China& India.
•The Arctic Ocean and a handful of seas front the northern
border, while the Bering Sea separates Asia from North
• In the southwest the Red Sea separate the continent
• The Indian Ocean fronts most of Asia's southern borders,
along with a series of bays, gulfs and seas, as well as extensive
chains of both inhabited and uninhabited islands.
•In the west, Asia is bordered by Europe, the eastern coastline
of the Mediterranean Sea, as well by the Black Sea and the
• In the east, Asia is bordered by the Pacific Ocean, and an
• 2nd largest continent and the second most-populous
• includes (54) individual countries, and Western Sahara, a
member state of the African Union whose statehood is
disputed by Morocco. South Sudan is the continent's
• With just over a billion people (a 2010 estimate) it
accounts for just over 14% of the world's human
• It also contains the Nile River system, the world's longest,
and the massive Sahara Desert, the world's largest.
• surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both
the Suez Canal and the Red Sea the Indian Ocean to the
east and southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
• 3rd largest continent, includes (23) countries and
dozens of possessions and territories.
• Positioned in the planet's northern and western
hemispheres, it's bordered in the north by the Arctic
Ocean, in the east by the Atlantic Ocean, in the
southeast by the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico,
and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
• It contains all Caribbean and Central America
countries, Canada, Mexico, the United States of
America, as well as Greenland - the world’s largest
• 4th largest continent, includes (12) independent
• The continent contains the world's highest
waterfall - Angel Falls in Venezuela; the largest
river (by volume)-the Amazon River; the longest
mountain range-the Andes, and the driest place on
earth-the Atacama Desert in Chile.
• It includes the largest rainforest, the Amazon
• 6th largest continent
• includes 48 countries and islands and territories.
• Europe's recognized surface area covers about
9,938,000 sq km or 2% of the Earth's surface, and about
6.8% of its land area.
• In exacting geographic definitions, Europe is really not a
continent, but part of the peninsula of Euroasia which
includes all of Europe and Asia. However, it's still widely
referred to as an individual continent.
• Europe is bordered by numerous bodies of water, is
separated from Asia by Russia's Ural Mountains and by
the Caspian and Black Seas. It is separated from Africa
by the Mediterranean Sea.
• smallest continent
• A large percentage of geography experts now
consider the long-established continent of
Australia to be more accurately defined as
• Collectively it then combines all of Australia,
New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, thousands of
coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South
Pacific Ocean, including the Melanesia and
Polynesia groups as well as Micronesia-a widely
scattered group of islands that run along the
northern and southern edges of the Equator.
This region, north of
the Arctic Circle,
includes the Arctic
Baffin Island, other
islands, and the far
northern parts of
(Siberia), Alaska and
• The Antarctic (or Antarctica) Circle is one of the five major
circles or parallels of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.
• Shown on the image with a dashed red line, this parallel of
latitude sits at approximately 66.33 south of the Equator.
•Every place south of the Antarctic Circle experiences at least
one whole day each year during which the sun does not set, and
at least one whole day during which the sun does not rise.
• Oceans are large bodies of water which cover two thirds of the
Earth's surface. These are part of a continuous body of water which
is divided by the continental landmasses.
• 5 oceans are: Pacific, Atlantic, Antarctic, Arctic, Indian Ocean.
•The largest and the deepest ocean is the Pacific which separates
Asia from America. The other oceans are Indian, Southern, Atlantic
• The Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean are further sub divided
at the equator into northern and southern parts.
• Atlantic separates North and South America from Europe and
• Indian Ocean named after India is bounded by Southern and
Western Asia, Africa and Australia.
• Southern ocean encircles Antarctica
• Arctic Ocean-located in the Arctic polar region- is surrounded by
Europe, Asia and North America. Arctic Ocean is the smallest of all
Maps are the basic tools of geography. They enable us
to depict spatial phenomenon on paper. There are
conventions used in cartography which allow a map to
be read efficiently and quickly.
A good map will have a legend or key which will show the
user what different symbols mean.
Every map is a representation of a larger portion of the earth.
Without a north arrow, it is difficult to determine the orientation of a
With a north arrow (pointing in the correct direction), a user can
A neat line is the border of a map. It helps
to define the edge of the map area and
obviously keeps things looking "neat."
Since the map is a flat representation of the curved
surface of the earth, all maps are inherently inaccurate.
There are a variety of projections which have been
formulated for different uses. A map's title provides
important clues about the cartographer's intentions and
MAP AND GLOBE
MAP= Representation Of Earth
On A Flat Paper
Globe= Representation of earth
in 3D view
Color appears so often on maps that we often take it
for granted that mountains are brown and rivers are
GMT is a time system originally referring to the
mean solar time at the Royal
Observatory in Greenwich, London, which later
became adopted as a global time standard.
It is arguably the same as Coordinated
Universal Time (UTC) and when this is viewed as
a time zone the name Greenwich Mean Time is
especially used by bodies connected with
the United Kingdom, and countries of
the Commonwealth, including Australia, South
Africa, India, Pakistan and Malaysia, as well as
many other countries in the Old World.
GREENWICH MEAN TIME
Why does the Prime Meridian (Zero Longitude) pass through
The International Meridian Conference took place in October
1884 in Washington DC. Twenty-five nations were represented
at the conference by 41 delegates. The Greenwich Meridian was
chosen to become the Prime Meridian of the World. There were
several reasons for this; the main one being that nearly two thirds
of the World's ships were already using charts based on it.
How long is the Prime Meridian?
From Pole to Pole, the Prime Meridian covers a
distance of 20,000 km.
Before the introduction of UTC on 1 January
1972 Greenwich Mean Time (also known as Zulu
time) was the same as Universal Time (UT)
which is a standard astronomical concept used in
many technical fields. Astronomers no longer use
the term "Greenwich Mean Time".
Historically the term GMT has been used with
two different conventions, sometimes numbering
hours starting at midnight and sometimes starting
at noon. The more specific terms UT and UTC do
not share this ambiguity, always referring to
midnight as zero hours.
INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE
The International Date Line is an imaginary line on the
surface of the Earth that sits mostly on the 180º line
of longitude in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
The International Date Line lies on the opposite side of the
world to the Prime Meridian (The Prime Meridian passes through
Greenwich in London. It separates the Eastern and Western
The International Date Line separates two
consecutive calendar days.
Immediately to the left of the International Date Line (the
date) is always one day ahead of the date (or
day) immediately to the right of the International Date Line
in the Western Hemisphere.
People crossing the line from East to the West skip
forward a day. Those crossing from the West to the East
repeat the day.
ELEMENTS OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE
The earth's climate is generally defined as the average
weather over a long period of time.
A place or region's climate is determined by both natural
and anthropogenic (human-made) factors.
The natural elements include the atmosphere, geosphere,
hydrosphere, and biosphere, while the human factors can include
land and resource uses.
Changes in any of these factors can cause local, regional, or
even global changes in the climate.
How Does Climate Differ From Weather?
WEATHER is the current atmospheric conditions, including
temperature, rainfall, wind, and humidity at a given place. If you
stand outside, you can see that it's raining or windy, or sunny or
cloudy. Weather is what's happening right now or is likely to
happen tomorrow or in the very near future.
CLIMATE, on the other hand, is the general weather
conditions over a long period of time. Climate refers to the sum
total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a
long period of time (more than thirty years).
ELEMENTS OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE
PRECIPITATION: Precipitation is simply any water form that falls to
the Earth from overhead cloud formations. As an element of weather,
precipitation determines whether outdoor activities are suitable or if the
water levels of creeks and rivers will rise. As an element of climate,
precipitation is a long-term, predictable factor of a region's makeup. For
instance, a desert may experience a storm (weather) though it remains
a typically dry area (climate).
HUMIDITY: Humidity is the measurable amount of moisture in the air of
the lower atmosphere. The humidity element of weather makes the
day feel hotter and can be used to predict coming storms. However, the
humidity element of climate is the prolonged moisture level of an
area that can affect entire ecosystems. For instance, tropical jungles
can sustain different forms of life than dry, arid climates because of the
overall humidity from rainfall and other factors.
TEMPERATURE: Temperature is simply the measurement of how hot
or cold a region is on a day-to-day basis. The weather aspect of
temperature can change throughout the day, however, it generally falls
within a certain range of predictable highs and lows (as climate). Cold
snaps and heat waves are weather that affect the temperatures of
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE: Atmospheric pressure is basically
the "weight" of the air. It is used primarily by meteorologists to
monitor developing storms that can seem to come out of
nowhere. While typically considered an aspect of weather, certain
regions of the world exist in zones where changing atmospheric
pressures form part of the predictable climate. Because of their
proximity to large bodies of water, places like coastal regions and
islands experience severe storms on a regular basis.
METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA: Tornadoes, hail storms
and fog are all examples of meteorological phenomena that are
hard to predict. As an element of weather, these occurrences
can seem random and are a result of a set of unique
circumstances. However, some regions of the world can factor
meteorological phenomena into their climate. For instance, the
American Midwest's "Tornado Alley" (tornadoes) and places like
London (fog) and Bangladesh (drastic and rapid climate
changes) have these occurrences so often that they are an
almost predictable part of the region's climate.
DISTANCE FROM THE SEA
Land heats and cools faster than the sea. Therefore coastal
areas have a lower temperature range than those areas
inland. On the coast winters are mild and summers are
cool. In inland areas temperatures are high in the summer
and cold in the winter.
Temperature range increases with distance from the
equator. Also, temperatures decrease as you move away
from the equator. This is because the suns rays are
dispersed over a larger area of land as you move away
from the equator. This is due to the curved surface of the
earth. In addition Polar Regions are colder because the
suns rays have further to travel compared to place on the
equator. Altitude Temperatures decrease with height. The
air is less dense and cannot hold heat as easily.
WINDS: If winds are warm - they have been blown from
a hot area - they will rise temperatures. If winds have
been blown from cold areas they will lower temperatures
The classification is based on maximum and minimum temperatures and the
temperature range as well as the total and seasonal distribution of precipitation
Polar very cold and dry all year
Temperate cold winters and mild summers
Arid dry, hot all year
Tropical hot and wet all year
Mediterranean mild winters, dry hot summers
Mountains (tundra) very cold all year