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Mukhya Mantri Gramin Peyjal Nishchay Yojana (MGPNY) – Bihar_Pankaj Kumar_AKRSP_2023.pdf

Ensuring sustainability of rural drinking water systems: Case presentation from a national symposium organised by IIM Bangalore, appointed by the center as the JJM chair for O&M, Arghyam and eGovernments Foundation on 2nd November 2023.

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Mukhya Mantri Gramin Peyjal Nishchay Yojana (MGPNY) -
Bihar
Insights from community institutions-led O&M in Muzaffarpur District
Presenter Profile
Pankaj Kumar,
Program Integrator,
AKRSP(I)
Program at a glance
MGPNY program
spread
Launch date
Case Study
Implementation agency
Managed by
Households
Scheme type
8,053 Gram Panchayats; 1.14 lakh
wards
27th Sep 2016
Design rolled out in 2022; 3 quality-safe
blocks of Muzaffarpur (548 wards/ 45 GPs)
Panchayati Raj Department,
till July 2023 & PHED then onwards
Ward Implementation and
Management Committees (WIMCs)
72,109 (3.5 lakh population)
Ward level schemes
Comprehensive O&M Policy for Piped Water Supply Schemes
Dirgh Kaalin Anurakshan Niti, 2021
Anurakshak (FLW)
designated for daily
operations; 2K/month
honorarium and 50% of user
fee collection as incentive
WIMCs as key institution for
O&M, record maintenance,
user fee collection
Annual Financial provisions
for O&M* by the state
Empanelled agencies for
minor & major repairs
Monitoring through
Technical Assistants for GP
clusters
Central Grievance
Redressal System (CGRC)
Communitization platforms
like Jal Chaupals
Regular WQ Testing and
Tank cleaning for water
safety
*Rs 24,000 for O&M, Rs 24,000 honorarium for Anurakshak, and Rs 24,000 for asset replacement
Delving into O&M challenges across domains
Operational
04
● There was no standardised practice and process of record keeping before
O&M guideline was notified
● Tanks were never cleaned; WQ testing was delayed
● Low uptake of grievance management system set up by State
Financial
03
● User tariff collection not prioritised, was need-based and irregular
● Delay in flow of government funds to WIMCs for O&M
● Community contribution and information on tariff was missing during
installation
Physical
01
● Departure from standard design and quality of works leading to different
levels of functionality (some partially functional, few non-functional)
● Schemes tapping safer aquifers, so the basic measures of filtration and
disinfection were not considered
Institutional
02
● Effective roll out of capacity building and handholding support for WIMCs
(first time managers) were not prioritized
● Handover process and steps were unclear
● Mechanism for review and problem resolution was weak
Theory of Change
If the Water Supply systems
are functioning effectively
(reliable, adequate safe water
supply)
and
If communities are engaged,
then water supply systems will
sustain through community
ownership and community
paying for the water charges.
Training &
continuous
handholding
● 548 Anurakshaks & 1100 WIMC members on O&M, record keeping, minor
& major repairs, O&M policy, organising Jal Chaupals etc.
● 57 Abhirakshaks for WQ testing and uploading data on JJM IMIS
Mobilisation &
sensitisation
● Through activities like Jal Chaupals and tank cleaning
● AKRSP CRPs have played an important role in the process
Process
observability
● From wards to block and district levels through digital tools for tasks
completed by Anurakshaks and capacity building at different levels
Digital financial
management
● For improved efficiencies and trust in the systems through mGramSeva
(PeyjalBihar).
Ecosystem for
repairs
● Promotion of 14 local groups to provide repair and maintenance
services to WIMCs
Activities in the Case Area

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Mukhya Mantri Gramin Peyjal Nishchay Yojana (MGPNY) – Bihar_Pankaj Kumar_AKRSP_2023.pdf

  • 1. Mukhya Mantri Gramin Peyjal Nishchay Yojana (MGPNY) - Bihar Insights from community institutions-led O&M in Muzaffarpur District Presenter Profile Pankaj Kumar, Program Integrator, AKRSP(I)
  • 2. Program at a glance MGPNY program spread Launch date Case Study Implementation agency Managed by Households Scheme type 8,053 Gram Panchayats; 1.14 lakh wards 27th Sep 2016 Design rolled out in 2022; 3 quality-safe blocks of Muzaffarpur (548 wards/ 45 GPs) Panchayati Raj Department, till July 2023 & PHED then onwards Ward Implementation and Management Committees (WIMCs) 72,109 (3.5 lakh population) Ward level schemes
  • 3. Comprehensive O&M Policy for Piped Water Supply Schemes Dirgh Kaalin Anurakshan Niti, 2021 Anurakshak (FLW) designated for daily operations; 2K/month honorarium and 50% of user fee collection as incentive WIMCs as key institution for O&M, record maintenance, user fee collection Annual Financial provisions for O&M* by the state Empanelled agencies for minor & major repairs Monitoring through Technical Assistants for GP clusters Central Grievance Redressal System (CGRC) Communitization platforms like Jal Chaupals Regular WQ Testing and Tank cleaning for water safety *Rs 24,000 for O&M, Rs 24,000 honorarium for Anurakshak, and Rs 24,000 for asset replacement
  • 4. Delving into O&M challenges across domains Operational 04 ● There was no standardised practice and process of record keeping before O&M guideline was notified ● Tanks were never cleaned; WQ testing was delayed ● Low uptake of grievance management system set up by State Financial 03 ● User tariff collection not prioritised, was need-based and irregular ● Delay in flow of government funds to WIMCs for O&M ● Community contribution and information on tariff was missing during installation Physical 01 ● Departure from standard design and quality of works leading to different levels of functionality (some partially functional, few non-functional) ● Schemes tapping safer aquifers, so the basic measures of filtration and disinfection were not considered Institutional 02 ● Effective roll out of capacity building and handholding support for WIMCs (first time managers) were not prioritized ● Handover process and steps were unclear ● Mechanism for review and problem resolution was weak
  • 5. Theory of Change If the Water Supply systems are functioning effectively (reliable, adequate safe water supply) and If communities are engaged, then water supply systems will sustain through community ownership and community paying for the water charges.
  • 6. Training & continuous handholding ● 548 Anurakshaks & 1100 WIMC members on O&M, record keeping, minor & major repairs, O&M policy, organising Jal Chaupals etc. ● 57 Abhirakshaks for WQ testing and uploading data on JJM IMIS Mobilisation & sensitisation ● Through activities like Jal Chaupals and tank cleaning ● AKRSP CRPs have played an important role in the process Process observability ● From wards to block and district levels through digital tools for tasks completed by Anurakshaks and capacity building at different levels Digital financial management ● For improved efficiencies and trust in the systems through mGramSeva (PeyjalBihar). Ecosystem for repairs ● Promotion of 14 local groups to provide repair and maintenance services to WIMCs Activities in the Case Area
  • 7. Enablers which helped resolve the challenges Existing state policy detailing specifics Community Resource Persons of AKRSP Support/ Cooperation of government departments Users valuing FHTC Technology
  • 8. Changes Observed So Far Operational - Better Service levels - 95% schemes functional, >90% effectively functional - Improved record keeping and documentation - Regularised Tank cleaning - Pre Monsoon WQ testing completed for all wards - Improved visibility on household connections Institutional - WIMCs functional and taking ownership - Confident Anurakshaks - Communities engaged through Jal Chaupals (570) - Higher and Faster Grievances redressal rates Financial - WIMCs maintaining records and being more accountable and transparent - Improved regularity of user fee collection - collections in more than 415 wards totaling to Rs.1.14 crore in 17 months Physical - 115 partially or non-functional schemes restored - Block level laboratory set up to improve the confidence on the FTK tests.
  • 9. Technology as an enabler in this journey PeyjalBihar (mGramSeva) For financial management at scheme level by tracking income through user tariff collection and expenditure on operations and repairs. Why use tech? To improve efficiency and effectiveness by generating data and capturing it as an ongoing process when activities are being carried out on the ground Who does it enable? The community institutions, frontline actors like Anurakshaks and the block/district level functionaries Participatory Digital Attestation (PDA) To make content accessible digitally and create a digital footprint of capacity-building initiatives and trained people. Avni To capture tasks performed by Anurakshaks such as WIMC meetings and Jal Chaulal conducted, Tank cleaning and WQ testing, scheme operations.
  • 10. Trained people made visible through PDA Avni (for Anurakshak/WIMC tasks) PeyjalBihar (for income & expenditure)
  • 11. Areas of improvement Operational ● Comprehensive plan for capacity building and hand-holding of Anurakshak and WIMCs ● Supply of kits and consumables, frequency of water quality testing, and mitigation process ● Sanitary survey and water safety planning ● Consistency in electricity connections, billing and payments Institutional ● Field level HR gap between block and WIMC ● Strengthen review and guidance mechanism especially from district and below ● Recognition and incentivising champions Financial ● Clear working of O&M cost, metering and appropriate tarif fixation for HHs and institutions ● Timely financial disbursal - both Anurakshak & Anurakshan amount ● Utilising FC funds for O&M through GPDP Physical ● Source sustainability needs consideration for long-term sustainability ● Linkage of empanelled agency for repair and maintenance with WIMCs ● Measures for waste water management
  • 12. Key observations from the case study 1. Communities value FHTC. 2. Local institutions like WIMC/VWSC need to be strengthened and hand-holded in the initial period to help them work with their unique challenges and nuances of the context. 3. If the water supply is predictable over sustained periods, there is a willingness from the community to pay if there is a willingness to charge by the system. This creates accountability and positive feedback loop to ensure long term sustainability. 4. Communities revert back to the old ways if the water supply does not function even for a short period of time. 5. Simple technology can be a key enabler for participatory scheme management.
  • 13. Key recommendations for implementing community-led O&M at scale 1. States must lay out detailed O&M guidelines and clearly communicate it to all the levels including the local institutions like VWSC/WIMC and communities. 2. Create mechanisms for regular handholding support to the VWSC/WIMC especially on process and softer aspects to strengthen their operations and governance. 3. Ensure smooth disbursal of finances till the Ward/Village level in a predictable manner. 4. Incentives to the frontline workers for collection of user charges is a good step for improving ownership, sustainability and holding the accountability 5. Adopt simple technology that enables the first mile, community as well as provides information to the functionaries at the block and district levels