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Case study of Gokarna Multi-village scheme, Kumta, Karnataka_IIM-B_2023.pdf

Ensuring sustainability of rural drinking water systems: Case presentation from a national symposium organised by IIM Bangalore, appointed by the center as the JJM chair for O&M, Arghyam and eGovernments Foundation on 2nd November 2023.

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Case study of Gokarna Multi-village
scheme, Kumta, Karnataka
Gopal Naik
Prerona Sengupta
Jal Jeevan Mission Cell
IIM Bangalore
Introduction
● This case study aims to understand the progress of JJM in Gokarna MVS
which covers six Gram Panchayats- Gokarna, Hiregutti, Bargi, Hanehalli,
Nadumaskeri and Torke which are in Kumta taluk Uttar Karnataka
district in Karnataka.
● Though it is in high rainfall area, some villages are in coastal zone and
suffer from high levels of salinity particularly in non-rainy seasons
Six GPs under MVS in Kumta Block of Uttar Karnataka
Kumta block is located in the Uttar Karnataka district of Karnataka. There are six GPs in the Kumta block under MVS-
19 villages under 6 GPs which receives water supply through MVS
GP Villages GP Villages
Gokarna ● Gokarna Bargi ● Betkuli
Hiregutti ● Hiregutti
● Yennemadi
● Morba
● Kolimanjaguni
Hanehalli ● Hanehalli
● Kadime
● Hoskeri
● Bankokodla
● Bidragere
Nadumaskeri ● Nadumaskeri,
● Harumaskeri
● Bhavikodla
Torke ● Torke
● Toreghajani
● Hittalmakki
● Madanageri
● Gonehalli.
19 villages under 6 GPs which receives water supply through MVS
Source Sustainability
● Source reliability
● Water quality
● Water availability going forward

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Case study of Gokarna Multi-village scheme, Kumta, Karnataka_IIM-B_2023.pdf

  • 1. Case study of Gokarna Multi-village scheme, Kumta, Karnataka Gopal Naik Prerona Sengupta Jal Jeevan Mission Cell IIM Bangalore
  • 2. Introduction ● This case study aims to understand the progress of JJM in Gokarna MVS which covers six Gram Panchayats- Gokarna, Hiregutti, Bargi, Hanehalli, Nadumaskeri and Torke which are in Kumta taluk Uttar Karnataka district in Karnataka. ● Though it is in high rainfall area, some villages are in coastal zone and suffer from high levels of salinity particularly in non-rainy seasons
  • 3. Six GPs under MVS in Kumta Block of Uttar Karnataka Kumta block is located in the Uttar Karnataka district of Karnataka. There are six GPs in the Kumta block under MVS-
  • 4. 19 villages under 6 GPs which receives water supply through MVS GP Villages GP Villages Gokarna ● Gokarna Bargi ● Betkuli Hiregutti ● Hiregutti ● Yennemadi ● Morba ● Kolimanjaguni Hanehalli ● Hanehalli ● Kadime ● Hoskeri ● Bankokodla ● Bidragere Nadumaskeri ● Nadumaskeri, ● Harumaskeri ● Bhavikodla Torke ● Torke ● Toreghajani ● Hittalmakki ● Madanageri ● Gonehalli.
  • 5. 19 villages under 6 GPs which receives water supply through MVS
  • 6. Source Sustainability ● Source reliability ● Water quality ● Water availability going forward
  • 7. In Gokarna, under MVS, raw water is channelled from the Gangavali, a perinnial river. This river is source for Water supply scheme to Sea bird project, Karwar and Ankola town. As per information from local villagers’ raw water is available for all twelve months. There is also plan to build vented barrage. Source Reliability for MVS Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 8. Treatment of raw water at the WTP ● Under MVS, water is sourced from Gangavali river, pumping through jack well located 17 kms away from the intermediate storage sump 1. ● Water is then filtered, treated and stored in existing intermediate storage sump-2, then pumpted into a Master Balancing Reservoir having a capacity of 6,16,000 litres.
  • 9. Water Quality ● WQMIS measures the quality of water at the treatment plant daily on the following parameters: odour, taste, turbidity, PH value, chloride, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, and TDS. ● It has been found that the PH value of raw water is higher than the treated water, however both the raw and treated water PH values are within the permitted limit of 6.5- 8.5. ● The TDS is also higher in raw water than the treated water. The treated water TDS is less than 300. Turbidity is higher during monsoon however it is within the permissible limit after the treatment. ● Total hardness is also within the permissible limit. There are no issues with the quality of the treated water so far.
  • 10. Water Quality Comparison between raw water, treated water at WTP and treated tap water Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 11. Infrastructural sustainability ● Existing infrastructure before the introduction of MVS ● Percentage of FHTC coverage in 19 villages ● Present requirement of water vs infrastructure designed for future population ● Components of the WTP under MVS
  • 12. The figure above represents the existing infrastructure present in these nineteen villages before the introduction of MVS. There are four types of infrastructure- Piped water supply (PWS), Motorized water supply (MWS), Bore well (BW) with hand pump and Bore well (BW). Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 13. The figure above represents the total number of households v. the number of households with FHTC. It also highlights the percentage of FHTC coverage in each village.. Bhavikodla, Madangeri, Morba, Harumaskeri, Hoskeri, Hittalmakki, Gonehalli and Yennemadi have 100% FHTC coverage. Gokarna, Nadumaskeri, Bankikodla, and Kolimanjaguni has more than 90% FHTC coverage. Hiregutti and Bidrageri have more than 80% of FHTC coverage. Betkuli, Torke, Kadime and Toreghazani have more than 70% of FHTC. Hanehalli has more than 60% of FHTC as of the previous month. Number and Percentage of FHTC coverage under MVS Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 14. The figure above represents present requirement of water KLD vs. the intermediate stage requirement and the ultimate stage requirement of water. The intermediate stage of requirement forecasts the requirement of water for the next 20 years; considering 18% increase over present population, and the ultimate stage of requirement forecasts the requirement of water for the next 30 years; considering 20% increase over present population. Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 15. Flow diagram of WTP ● The WTP has six main components: Aerator, Flash mixer, Flocculator, Clarifier, rapid sand filter and pure water sump. ● The pumping machinery from jack well to WTP for raw water is of 220 HP with an efficiency of 70%. ● The discharge rate is 79.98 LPS. The rising main pipe diameter is 300 mm and is of 14500 metres in length. ● The pumping machinery for pure water is of 55 HP with an efficiency of 60%. ● The discharge rate is 52.497 LPS. The rising main pipe diameter is 250 mm and is of 200 metres in length. Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 16. Operations and Maintenance ● Components of O&M expenses ● Water consumption and water charges per KL in 19 villages under MVS
  • 17. Components of MVS O&M expenses Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 18. 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 140.00 Jul-22 Aug-22 Sep-22 Oct-22 Nov-22 Dec-22 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 In Liters 2022-2023 Gokarna GP Per-Capita Monthly Water Consumption
  • 19. 0.00 2000.00 4000.00 6000.00 8000.00 10000.00 12000.00 Jul-22 Aug-22 Sep-22 Oct-22 Nov-22 Dec-22 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 In Liters 2022-2023 Torke GP Per-Capita Monthly Water Consumption Torke Hittalmakki Madangeri Gonnehalli
  • 20. 0.00 500.00 1000.00 1500.00 2000.00 2500.00 Jul-22 Aug-22 Sep-22 Oct-22 Nov-22 Dec-22 Jan-23 Feb-23 Mar-23 Apr-23 May-23 Jun-23 In Liters 2022-2023 Hanehalli GP Per-Capita Monthly Water Consumption. Hanehalli Kadime Hoskeri Bidragere
  • 21. Financial Analysis ● Full cost of delivery of water per kl ● Operational cost of delivery of water ● Monthly cost of delivery of water per kl and per HH ● Generation of surplus or deficit over full cost and operational cost.
  • 22. Financial Analysis - MVS ● The full cost of delivery of water per kl is INR 26.08. ● The operation cost of delivery of water per kl is INR 6.85. ● The monthly cost of delivery per household is INR 456.57. ● There is a deficit of INR 3,257,027 over opex cost. ● There is a deficit of INR 39,986,027 over total cost. Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 23. Institutional Involvement ● The extent of contribution made by household ● Formation of VWSC ● Grievance redressal mechanism ● Time taken to resolve issues
  • 24. Source sustainability S.N o Questions TORKE HITTALMAKKI GOKARN HOSKERI MADANAGERI 1 Is the water source perennial. WTP for drinking water and dug well WTP for drinking water and dug well WTP for drinking water, dug well and tubewell WTP for drinking water, dug Well and borewell WTP for drinking water and dug well 2 Source reliability Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable 3 Development of additional sources Shallow dug wells and surface ponds; community dugwells can be revived. Shallow dug wells and surface ponds; community dugwells can be revived. Shallow dug wells and surface ponds; community dugwells can be revived. Shallow dug wells and surface ponds; community dugwells can be revived. Shallow dug wells and surface ponds; community dugwells can be revived. 4 Reuse of greywater. Water used in backyard garden Water used in backyard garden Water used in backyard garden Water used in backyard garden Water used in backyard garden 5 Possibility of source contamination in future Pathogenic contamination Pathogenic contamination Pathogenic contamination Pathogenic contamination Pathogenic contamination 6 Are there actions needed to ensure sustainability? Rainwater conserving structures Rainwater conserving structures Rainwater conserving structures Rainwater conserving structures Rainwater conserving structures Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 25. Operational sustainability S.N o Questions TORKE HITTALMAKKI GOKARN HOSKERI MADANAGERI 1 Household Coverage 297 117 3245 145 324 2 Current water quality issues No issue No issue No issue No issue No issue 3 Frequency of water quality tests Quarterly and the state health department conducts monthly tests to check pathogenic contaminants. Quarterly and the state health department conducts monthly tests to check pathogenic contaminants. Quarterly and the state health department conducts monthly tests to check pathogenic contaminants. Quarterly and the state health department conducts monthly tests to check pathogenic contaminants. Quarterly and the state health department conducts monthly tests to check pathogenic contaminants. 4 Utilization of WQ test reports Utilised to mitigate the contamination. Utilised to mitigate the contamination. Utilised to mitigate the contamination. Utilised to mitigate the contamination. Utilised to mitigate the contamination. 5 Water meter readings Installed and readings are not recorded Installed and readings are not recorded Installed and readings are not recorded Installed and readings are not recorded Installed and readings are not recorded 6 Turnaround time for fixing repair & maintenance. 24-36 hours 24-36 hours 24-36 hours 24-36 hours 24-36 hours Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 26. Financial sustainability S.No Questions TORKE HITTALMAKKI GOKARN HOSKERI MADANAGERI 1 Determination of water charges. GP and the people who actively participate are engaged in the decision-making. GP and the people who actively participate are engaged in the decision-making. GP and the people who actively participate are engaged in the decision- making. GP and the people who actively participate are engaged in the decision-making. GP and the people who actively participate are engaged in the decision-making. 2 Billing cycle Monthly Monthly Monthly Not yet charged Monthly 3 Amount charged per month 80 80 100 Not Yet Charged 80 4 Full cost of delivery of water per HH per month 482.31 482.31 473.57 470.55 482.31 5 IVDS Operational cost of delivery of water per HH per month and total opex 25.74 145.6 25.74 145.6 17.87 137.7 13.98 133.84 25.74 145.6 6 Generation of surplus or deficit over full cost and operational cost. Deficit over full and operational cost Deficit over full and operational cost Deficit over full and operational cost NA Deficit over full and operational cost 7 Bank Account. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 8 Corpus funds are generation. No No No No No Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 27. Institutional sustainability S . N o Questions TORKE HITTALMAKKI GOKARN HOSKERI MADANAGERI 1 The extent of contribution made by the household 10% 10% 10% 10% 10% 2 Formation of VWSC Formation completed Formation completed Formation completed Formation done Formation completed 3 The extent of involvement of the community 60% 60% 60% 60% 60% 4 Ability to resolve issues Training is being given. Training is being given. Training is being given. Training is being given. Training is being given. 5 Salary to in charge person monthly monthly monthly monthly monthly 6 Grievance redressal mechanism. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 7 . Reporting complaints verbally and recording them Verbally reported but are not recorded. Verbally reported but are not recorded. Verbally reported but are not recorded. Verbally reported but are not recorded. Verbally reported but are not recorded. Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 29. S.No Sustainability MVS IVDS 1 Source Perinnial River WTP for drinking water and other sources of ground water for miscellaneous usage 2 Operation Water meters readings are recorded; time taken for repairis usually 3 days to 1 week due to large scale infrastructure at WTP Water meters are installed but readings are not recorded; time taken for repairing is usually 24-36 hours due to small scale infrastructure in the village level. 3 Financial Deficit over operational cost and total cost Deficit over total and operational costs. 4 Institutional Grievance redressal system is active. According to the GPs, there has been no issue reported so far. Grievance redressal system is active but not recorded not aware of Parihar. Source- RDWS & Sub-Division Kumta
  • 30. Take aways ● Need to study the treated water dependence pattern of each habitation and arrive at water supply system to make it need based ● Computation of total and operational costs of delivery of water and create awareness to help communities to move towards full cost recovery ● Creation of awareness of water quality and testing responsibility. Health department involvement is important.
  • 31. Challenges ● Addressing heterogenous concerns of habitations ● Cost recovery – even operational cost recovery ● Involvement community and efficiency of operations and maintenance