Integrated Urban Water Management, by Kala Vairavamoorthy

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A presentation by Professor Kalanithy Vairavamoorthy, made during Africa Water Week, 27 May 2014, in Dakar, Senegal.

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Integrated Urban Water Management, by Kala Vairavamoorthy

  1. 1. Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) African Water Week Dakar 27th May 2014 Kala Vairavamoorthy Patel College of Global Sustainability UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA
  2. 2. ~2.5 Billion without access to improved sanitationd ~780 million without access to improved water Bad News: Developing World
  3. 3. Managing urban water will become more challenging in the future
  4. 4. • 155,000 persons per day • 90% in developing countries • ~90% in urban areas • ~850,000 per week in urban settings The Urban Arithmetic for 2050 Growing but also ‘Growing Up’
  5. 5. Source: UN (2003) Growth in emerging towns - Opportunity to do Things Differently
  6. 6. Source: World Bank (2010) World Development Report 2009 Reshaping Economic Geography , second edition, pp. 35 Opportunity to do Things In Africa and Asia
  7. 7. Shenzhen Fishing village of several thousand City of 7 million – big in electronic manufacturing 1980 Today Rapid Urbanization in Africa and Asia
  8. 8. Need to think differently
  9. 9. IUWM is not a methodology but a mindset - a different way of thinking IntegrationProductive UseBeneficiation
  10. 10. Doing more with less ‘Integration the key’ Holistic systems approach to the urban watershed
  11. 11. Surface water Demand management Leakage management Stormwater/ Rainwater Black water Groundwater Grey water Productivity requires an integrated perspective of the urban water cycle
  12. 12. Integrated modelling allows us to connect all flows with productive uses SURFACE WATER/GROUNDWATER/DESALINATION) WATER SUPPLY COMM/DOM/IND/USE IRRIGATION GREYWATER REUSE WASTEWATER TREATMENT RECEIVING BODY (SUSRFACE/GROUNDWATER) RAINWATER/ STORMWATER HARVESTING POTABLE WATER RAIN/STORMWATER GREY WATER BLACK WATER KEY RECLAIMED WATER
  13. 13. TransitioningExploring alternative urban water solutions to rapid population growth Water demand will at least double until 2035 NAIROBI
  14. 14. Typical solutions - import more water to meet growing needs • Unit costs of US$ 0.36/m3 NewGW Existing Demand (2010) 637X103 m3/d deficit New SW-1 New SW-2 Demand (2035)
  15. 15. Improving productivity measure reduces unit costs • Unit costs of US$ 0.31/m3 (cf. to 0.36) Demand (2035) New SW-1 Rainwater harvesting(Cluster) NewGW DemandMgt.Leakage Mgt. Greywater(Cluster) Demand (2010) 637X103 m3/d deficit
  16. 16. Further productivity measures can postpone investments • Unit costs of US$ 0.40/m3 (cf. to 0.36) Rainwater harvesting(Cluster) NewGW DemandMgt.Leakage Mgt. Greywater(Cluster) Demand (2010) 637X103 m3/d deficit Reclaimwater(Cluster) Rainwater(HH) Greywater(Household) Demand (2035) 1.21 WN
  17. 17. It’s already happening: Namibia Reclaimed Dam Water Groundwater Domestic Consumers Industrial Irrig. -Parks WW Treatment 26% 66% 8% 45% 7% 6% 10% Unaccounted for Water WW Treatment Irrig. - Fodder River Reuse for Irrigation Reusefordrinkingwater Reclaimed (old) 13% 83% Consumed 38% 26% 90% Security through diversity
  18. 18. Conveyance Treatm.(pump) Treatm.(process) Local catchment Import NEWater Desal Total 0.48 0.42 1.03 kwh/m3 0.56 4.09 NEWRI 2010 Unconventional water sources: more energy intensive
  19. 19. bank filtration, soil-aquifer treatment, constructed wetlands, hybrid systems Natural systems can help close the water cycle
  20. 20. River Natural systems can help close the water cycle $0.067/m3 (cf 0.28/m3) 0.012 -0.024 $/m3 (cf 0.05-0.15 $/m3) (0.17 $/m3) Lake Bank Filtration River Bank Filtration Primary Treatment and/or Constructed Wetlands Stabilization Ponds Water for Irrigation River Dam Reservoir Ecohydrology Low Energy – Water Efficient’ Closed Loop Soil Aquifer Treatment Artificial Recharge Recovery
  21. 21. Kibera Nairobi Dam Ngong River Greywater from unserviced households Polluted runoff from streets Overflow from pit latrines Flows from Kibera pollute Nairobi Dam No longer used as a water source
  22. 22. Cost for provision of drainage and sanitation for Kibera • EAC US$ 1.0M Condominium sewers Condominium sewers DEWATS DEWATS Potential water resources after slum improvement • Yield 17,300m3/d • Cost of water (0.16$/m3) • US$800,000/year reduction SUDS SUDS Urban water infrastructure provision to Kibera benefit all of Nairobi Ben
  23. 23. Manage water supply, wastewater & stormwater together (one urban water cycle)……. and think creatively about what could be your water sources (and don’t focus on the obvious ones). Take home message (educate future urban leaders on the integrated perspective of the urban water cycle and contextualize each component of the water system within this perspective)
  24. 24. Need to recognize that main challenges are political and institutional in nature Path to Implementation Political & Institutional Barriers Need collaboration, cooperation, and coordination between institutions
  25. 25. The water sector can’t do it alone Land planners Architects Developers Gov’t officials Financiers Energy experts
  26. 26. We need to break down barriers
  27. 27. Bogota, Colombia Issue: • pollution of upper Rio Bogota (tanneries) Key players: • Association of tanners, Regulator, Local government, NGO, University,… Outcomes: • 1/2 of small enterprises implemented cleaner production principles removing 90% pollution
  28. 28. We need to put water in the minds of people?
  29. 29. Create a favorable enabling environment (institutional landscape, regulations etc.) that allows the effective and sustainable urban water management Take home message
  30. 30. Think about Harvesting Looking from downstream up
  31. 31. Perspective of productive use and beneficiation Productive Use Beneficiation Quality B Quality A Quality C Grey water Brownwater Urine Solid waste Surface Water Ground Water Rain Water Energy Potable Water Reclaimed non-potable Industry Use Hygienized Sludge Nutrients Bioplastic
  32. 32. These perspectives lead to a more decentralized type of thinking? Decentralization well suited for: • Energy recovery (heat recovered and used close to source) • Minimizing energy consumption (for moving water) • Source separation (to maximize nutrient recovery) • Adjusted growth (to deal with rapid growing cities) • Increased resiliency (dampens the propagation of failures)
  33. 33. Water machine to deal with growing cities - Qingdao, China • 12,000 PE clusters • Source separation and water quality matched to intended use • Net energy positive Water Resource
  34. 34. Look for opportunities to create new paradigms (not extended old ones) Formalised Water System Small scale providers Growth Decentralized community based Expansion of existing system to serve new demand New demand
  35. 35. Qujiang New District North lake South lake Associated wetland District wastewater treatment plant District wastewater network District storm water drainage (Secondary treatment) (Tertiary treatment) (Regulation lakes) Gardening Forestation Miscellaneous uses Car washing • New cluster for 10,000 PE • Environmental buffers used before reuse • Clusters boundaries determined through spatial optimization process Cities ring-fencing central core and decentralizing in new areas - Xi’an Xi’an Central
  36. 36. Cities ring-fencing central core and decentralizing in new areas - Xi’an Siyuan College • 18,000 students • Decentralized water and wastewater • 50% less potable water Xi’an Central
  37. 37. Quick growing emerging towns Exploring opportunities to do thinks differently in emerging cities UGANDA
  38. 38. C1 C2 C3 C4 C7 C6 C5 Look for opportunities to create new paradigms (not extended old ones)
  39. 39. Semi-centralized is cheaper? Average Annual Costs 3,787,000 US$ Average Annual Costs 5,148,000 US$
  40. 40. One size does not fit all – Different solutions for different drivers & applications Centralized Decentralized Cluster In SituSemi CentralizedLarge Scale A Continuum of Options EXTREME EVENTS – RESILIENT WATER SYSTEM
  41. 41. Driver for water management should be beneficiation –maximize value added (institutions & regulations to support and not hinder) ‘All water is good water: fit for purpose’ Take home message (educate future urban leaders on all benefits of water – public health, aesthetics, economic development, green economy)
  42. 42. Transitioning Graph Theory Transition Systems Existing System Future System Based on Old System Future System Totally New System Transitioning
  43. 43. 0 10 20 30 40
  44. 44. 0 10 20 30 40
  45. 45. 0 10 20 30 40
  46. 46. 0 10 20 30 40
  47. 47. 0 10 20 30 40
  48. 48. 0 10 20 30 40
  49. 49. 0 10 20 30 40
  50. 50. 0 10 20 30 40
  51. 51. 0 10 20 30 40
  52. 52. 0 10 20 30 40
  53. 53. 0 10 20 30 40 Sempewo, J., Vairavamoorthy, K. and Grimshaw, F. (2010)
  54. 54. We need Champions of Change Train new urban leaders!
  55. 55. Training program needs to be holistic and promote integration Technology Selection Building Effective Institutions Stakeholder Engagement Economics and Finance IUWM Toolbox IUWM Diagnostics Water Balance Model
  56. 56. There are many technologies suited for developing countries – but what are they? What technologies exist to allow me to reuse & recycle? How can I capture nutrients from my water? What technologies will help me generate energy from my water? What technologies exist to help me harvest stormwater? What technologies will help me convert faecal sludge into money? ?????
  57. 57. Greywater Treatment:Household DEWATS Horizontal Flow Wetlands Algal Culture Ponds: Harvest Micro-algae Fecal sludge into safe fertilizer: LaDePa machine (Durban) We need a catalogue to help us understand what technologies exist (and where/when to apply)
  58. 58. Medium Level for Senior Managers Expert Training for Managers & Practitioners A strategy that cascades change
  59. 59. Choices Before Us What You Know.. What You Don’t Know.. What You Know.. Stay in Lane Business as Usual Try Harder Spend More for Traditional Sys Paradigm Shift Truly Different Approach
  60. 60. Kalanithy Vairavamoorthy vairavk@usf.edu Thank You Global Challenges, Global Research, Global Solutions

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