Learning about Springs & Groundwater_ Dr.Jared Buono and Dr. Himanshu Kulkarni_2014

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This is the presentation by Dr.Jared Buono and Dr. Himanshu Kulkarni on Springs, Aquifers and Ground Water. It talks about how springs are related to Ground water management and vice-versa.

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Learning about Springs & Groundwater_ Dr.Jared Buono and Dr. Himanshu Kulkarni_2014

  1. 1. झरे संरक्षण कार्यशाळा Spring Protection Short Course March 2014 IofC Centre, Panchgani
  2. 2. • Welcome • Introductions • Organizational Overview
  3. 3. - In 53 countries - In India since 1968 by Rajmohan Gandhi - Conducts training in ethical leadership, values, personal development & trust building ABOUT IofC India
  4. 4. MISSION: - Empower rural India through thoughtful, community-led programs CORE AREAS: - Livelihoods - Governance - Health & Environment
  5. 5. Time Session 10:15-10:40 Welcome, intros, & overview 10:40-11:00 Spring definitions, general characteristics, & geography 11:00-12:15 Hydrogeology , groundwater, local examples & discussion 12:15-1:00 Best practices, water quality, spring ecology 1:00-2:00 Lunch 2:00-3:30 Case Studies – springshed mapping, ecological status, recommendations (Godavalli, Kirunde, etc) 3:30-4:00 Campus tour, sustainable demos & organic garden visit 4:00-4:30 Tea 4:30-6:30 Forest & geology trek 7:00 Dinner & wildfire movie Overview of day 1, March 20th
  6. 6. Time Session 7:00-8:00 Nature walk & meditation 8:00-9:00 Breakfast 9:00-1:30 Field visit & workday, Umbari village BRING A WATER BOTTLE! 1:30-2:30 Lunch Overview of day 2, March 21st
  7. 7. Why Springs? • Water biggest issue in local villages • Lots of opportunity for springs as solution • Grampari started spring protection programme 3 years ago
  8. 8. Map Credit: wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons • Now part of larger initiative funded by Arghyam to make springs national priority • Other partners in corners of India • We are partners for Western Ghats
  9. 9. विहिरी वि स्प्रंग्ज • पंवपंग खर्य • शुद्ध पाणी • िर्यभर पुरिठा
  10. 10. Arghyam- Grampari कार्यक्रम विहंगािलोकन पूर्य प्रकलपांची Where we’ve worked
  11. 11. Arghyam- Grampari कार्यक्रम विहंगािलोकन पूर्य प्रकलपांची विचाराधीन प्रकलप Current projects
  12. 12. Arghyam- Grampari कार्यक्रम विहंगािलोकन पूर्य प्रकलपांची विचाराधीन प्रकलप च्र्ा पलीकडे जार्े Outreach conducted
  13. 13. सोलर्ुशन्स
  14. 14. Extent and Characteristics of Western Ghat Springs • Definition & Characteristics • Geography • Examples • Benefits • Eco-status
  15. 15. Basalt: • Fine grained • Groundwater flow limited to cracks, vesicles
  16. 16. Deccan traps • 66M year old lava • 500K km2 area • ~2000m thick Present day Iceland
  17. 17. Laterite Cap Basalt Layers Potential Spring Locations Villages Accessing Spring Water Typical setting
  18. 18. Spring Formation Laterite Cap Typical Groundwater Flow Paths - At contacts - Occasional fractures - Laterite plateaus
  19. 19. Typical spring
  20. 20. Includes shallow ground water sites
  21. 21. Spring recharge zone Spring discharge zone Well recharge zone Springs Springshed vs. watershed
  22. 22. Typical Characteristics Discharge = up to 1,00,000 liters per day Elevation = 50 to 1400 m above sea level Geology: basalt, laterite or talus Spring type: contact or fracture
  23. 23. Typical Characteristics Uses: drinking, irrigation, temples, animals Safe, sustainable source of drinking water • Gravity-fed = no pumping cost • Year round supply • Water quality very high
  24. 24. Cultural value
  25. 25. Credit: Rohit Gowaikar, Wikipedia/Flickr Historic value
  26. 26. Sole drinking water source for many
  27. 27. Ecohydrologic Status • Generally, declining discharge due to: – groundwater exploitation – ecological degradation • Poor maintenance, mismanagement common
  28. 28. Current state of many springs
  29. 29. • Construction in recharge areas • Loss to bore and well pumping
  30. 30. • Springs being damaged or lost • Many blasting or digging wells on spring locations
  31. 31. • Destroys spring ecosystem • Does not yield more water
  32. 32. • How many springs are there? • How many people affected?
  33. 33. DON’T KNOW YET!
  34. 34. What we do know • Springs found throughout Western Ghats
  35. 35. Karjat Area: Elevation – 50 m Flow – ~7 l/m Use – irrigation Status – disuse, loss to bore wells Pune Area: Elevation – 700 m Flow – ~10 l/m Use – drinking Status – loss to bores, wells Koyna Area: Elev – 800 m Flow – ~30 l/m Use – drinking Status – healthy in unpopulated area Panchgani Area: Elev – 1200 m Flow – ~9 l/m Use – drinking Status – loss to bores, wells
  36. 36. Satara District
  37. 37. Maharashtra Location Map SATARA DISTRICT SPRINGS Legend District Boundary Taluka Boundary Spring Locations (Subsample) Laterite Tableland Formations • Our growing map of springs • For every point there are probably 100 more
  38. 38. Detailed survey: • >20 spring systems • 10 dependent villages • ~9000 people • All springs threatened
  39. 39. Maharashtra Location Map SATARA DISTRICT SPRINGS Legend District Boundary Taluka Boundary Spring Locations (Subsample) Laterite Tableland Formations Conclusion: Lakhs and lakhs of people in District dependent on springs
  40. 40. National Importance of the Western Ghats
  41. 41. Western Ghats Modified from Molur et al. 2011 • Considered one of eight top biodiversity hotspots in the world • Only 6% of the primary vegetation remains intact *Myers et al. 2000
  42. 42. Western Ghats Watersheds - Cover 9 states - Direct water supply for 120 million people - Indirect, >400 million *Molur et al. 2011 Modified from Molur et al. 2011 Western Ghats
  43. 43. Hydrogeology • Springs in Himalaya vs Western Ghats • Groundwater & springs • Local investigation of Akehgani – Springs, aquifers & recommendations for recharge & protection
  44. 44. BaUjala vyavasqaapnava Jaro saMvaQa-na ACWADAM & Grampari Supported by Arghyam, Bengaluru Modified after Tolman, 1937
  45. 45. Mcao mah%va
  46. 46. BaUgaiBa-ya P`akairta: BaUjalaaivaYayaI ivaivaQata samajaNyaacaM pihlaM pa}la
  47. 47. maharaYT/acao KDk After GSI, GSDA N SCALE-1:1000000 GEOLOGICAL MAP OF MAHARASHTRA LATERITES DECCAN TRAP LAVA FLOWS (HARD ROCKS) SEDIMENTARY ROCKS (SOFT ROCKS) METAMORPHICS (HARD ROCKS) GEOLOGICAL FORMATION SHALLOW ALLUVIUM DEEP ALLUVIUM MUMBAI CHANDRAPUR BHANDARA GONDIA NAGPUR AMRAVATI YAVATMAL WASHIM GADCHIROLI WARDHA NANDURBAR DHULE NASIK JALGAON BULDHANA AURANGABAD AKOLA NANDED PARBHANI HINGOLI BEED JALNA LATUR NAGAR OSMANABAD PUNE SOLAPUR SATARA RATNAGIRI RAIGAD KOLHAPUR SANGLI SINDHUDURG THANE INDEX
  48. 48. doSa BaUjalaavar AvalaMbaUna . . . –3 kaoTI ivaihrI va ik%yaok kaoTI Jaro –ipNyaasaazI –g`aamaINa BaagaaMt 85T@@yaahUna AiQak –SaotIsaazI – 60 to 65 T@ko –SahraMt vaapr – javaL javaL 50
  49. 49. ihmaalayatIla BaUjala P`avaah va Jaro
  50. 50. Spring Spring Spring piScama GaaTatIla BaUjala P`ava
  51. 51. jamaIinaKalaIla vyavasqaa
  52. 52. Jaro:BaUjalaacaaca ekBaaga jamaInaItIla“BaUjala” ijaqaM jamaInaIvar baahor pDtM %yaa izkaNaI “Jara” saapDtao BaUjala “BaUjalaQaarkat” (aquifer) AaZLtM. BaUjalaQaarkatIla naOsaiga- kir%yaa baahor pDNaaro PaaNaI Jara mhNaUnaAapNa pahtao. Points of Groundwater Discharge
  53. 53. Jaro:ivaivaQa P`akar Ja-yaa-Mcao P`akar samajaUnaGaoNa AavaSyak… -Depression spring -Contact spring - Fracture spring - Fault spring - Karst spring Modified after Tolman, 1937
  54. 54. Modified after Tolman, 1937
  55. 55. Modified after Tolman, 1937
  56. 56. Modified after Tolman, 1937
  57. 57. Modified after Tolman, 1937
  58. 58. Jara va ivaihr yaat kaya samaanata Aaho? AQUIFER ikMvaa BaUjalaQaark
  59. 59. What normally comes to mind when we refer to “groundwater”..... Aquifer looking beyond sources... ...understanding the resource
  60. 60. Mountain sources – water in two villages: beyond topography, watersheds and admin boundaries…
  61. 61. Aquifers: revisiting sources vs the resource
  62. 62. BaUjalaiva&anava punaBa-
  63. 63. AaKogaNaIcaM “gaugala” ica~
  64. 64. AaKogaNaItIlaek Jara…
  65. 65. AaKogaNaI gaavaatIla Jara va BaUgaBaa-tIla vyavasqaa
  66. 66. Groundwater: partly visible but practically undivisible…
  67. 67. AaKogaNaItIla BaUjalaQaarktIlaP`avaah:ivaihrI va Jara yaaMnaapaNaI doNaara
  68. 68. AaKogaNaItIlapunaBa-rNaasaazI]pyau@t xao~
  69. 69. Advanced Center for Water Resources Development and Management Email: acwadam@vsnl.net Website: www.acwadam.org
  70. 70. Best Practices Build awareness & empower community to: • Find & fix leaks • Identify springshed • Protect from fire, grazing, tree cutting • Limit nearby pumping (bores, wells) • Build/maintain spring box, prevent contamination
  71. 71. Empowerment
  72. 72. Field Survey
  73. 73. • Leaks a major problem • Up to 25% of supply lost
  74. 74. Shramdhan
  75. 75. Springshed Restoration & Recharge
  76. 76. Spring Box
  77. 77. Standard Spring Box
  78. 78. Sub-surface Box
  79. 79. Nalla-box (sand dam)
  80. 80. Nalla-box (sand dam)
  81. 81. Nalla-box (sand dam) With livestock or wildlife guzzler
  82. 82. Water quality of springs • Contamination generally due to poor design in harvest and storage • Conversion to surface water sources (i.e. blasting) • Surface water runoff • Storage tank hygiene
  83. 83. Water Quality of Springs • Water quality very good; min & max values – Temp: 17 – 22 °C (winter) – Ph: 7.3 – 8.3 – TDS: 35 – 160 mg/l – EC: 70 – 320 mmho/cm – Hardness (CaCO3): 30 – 140 mg/l – Na: 2 – 25 mg/l – K: 0 – 2 mg/l – Ca2: 10 – 36 mg/l – Mg2: 1 – 12 mg/l – HCO3: 31 – 177 mg/l – Cl: 7 – 14 mg/l – Fe2: 0.4 – 0.7 mg/l ***** From Naik et al. 2000 • Only iron shows marginal excess • Pathogens are rare at source (e.g. no fecals)
  84. 84. Typical spring box • Installed in 1970s as drought response • Poor design & maintenance = leaks, contamination • Declining flow due to adjacent pumping, ecological degradation
  85. 85. Surface water runoff
  86. 86. HUMAN FECES ON A SPRING BOX
  87. 87. Water quality of springs
  88. 88. • Conversion to surface water sources (i.e. blasting to make a spring cum well) • Results in contamination
  89. 89. Spring Restoration & Ecology • Springshed degradation • Restoration best practices • Ecological reference conditions • Importance to biodiversity
  90. 90. Spring Recharge
  91. 91. Misplaced wells can destroy springs Spring Recharge
  92. 92. Best case, healthy native vegetation Spring Recharge
  93. 93. Spring Recharge Loss of trees = less monsoon captured
  94. 94. Annual burning & overgrazing = more runoff Spring Recharge
  95. 95. Spring Recharge Continued pressure = soil loss & no recharge
  96. 96. Ecological Degradation • Anthropogenic fire • Over grazing • Fuel wood collection
  97. 97. CCT – Continuos Contour Trenches
  98. 98. Staggered Trenches
  99. 99. Farm Ponds
  100. 100. Loose rock dams
  101. 101. Tree planting • Survival rate is 10% • Protection from grazing & fire • Watering
  102. 102. NORTH ASPECT SOUTH ASPECT Is this ecosystem healthy???
  103. 103. • Freshwater biodiversity dependent on springs (plants, insects, fish and other vertebrates) • Many of the most threatened species (large mammals, fish & amphibians) depend on springs • And these are some of the most heavily used ecosystems
  104. 104. Nalla-box (sand dam) With livestock or wildlife guzzler
  105. 105. LUNCH! REFERENCES: Molur, S., Smith, K.G., Daniel, B.A. and Darwall, W.R.T. (Compilers). 2011. The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in the Western Ghats, India. Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, and Coimbatore, India: Zoo Outreach Organisation. Myers, N., R.A. Mittermeier, C.G. Mittermeier, G.A.B. da Fonseca, J. Kent. 2000. Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities. Nature 403, 853-858(24 February 2000). Naik, P.K., · A.K. Awasthi, P.C. Mohan. 2002. Springs in a Headwater Basin in the Deccan Trap Country of the Western Ghats, India. Hydrogeology Journal (2002) 10:553–565.
  106. 106. Godavalli Village Panchgani Tableland Main Spring at Temple N Godavalli Village Mapping & Recommendations Feb 2014
  107. 107. Lineament/Fracture Zone along Nala Sub-Watershed Spring Laterite - Basalt Contact Contour N Watershed & Spring Feb 2014
  108. 108. Godavalli Aquifer Contour Feb 2014 Wells Spring *
  109. 109. Wells Spring Flow Vectors * Godavalli Aquifer Feb 2014
  110. 110. Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Talus & Soils Complex 1315 m 1220 m 1187 m 1125 m 1090 m Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Laterite Rocky Plateau Geologic Section Feb 2014
  111. 111. Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Talus & Soils Complex 1315 m 1220 m 1187 m 1125 m 1090 m Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Laterite Rocky Plateau RECHARGE ZONE SPRING – DISCHARGE ZONE Recharge & Discharge Zones Feb 2014
  112. 112. Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Talus & Soils Complex 1315 m 1220 m 1187 m 1125 m 1090 m Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Laterite Rocky Plateau Orthographic Section Feb 2014
  113. 113. Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Talus & Soils Complex 1315 m 1220 m 1187 m 1125 m 1090 m Massive Basalt Vesicular Basalt Laterite Rocky Plateau Recharge Zone Feb 2014
  114. 114. Lineament/Fracture Zone along Nala Springshed Recharge Zone Springshed Discharge Zone Laterite - Basalt Contact Contour N Recharge & Discharge Zones Feb 2014
  115. 115. Lineament/Fracture Zone along Nala Management – Reforestation Management – Roof Water Harvest & Limited Pumping Laterite - Basalt Contact Contour N Management Recommendations Feb 2014
  116. 116. Tomorrow’s Field Visit Umbari Village
  117. 117. * * • Approximate spring locations • What do you notice about the landscape?
  118. 118. * *
  119. 119. • Notice anything else? Recent fire scars
  120. 120. Spring Quiz!
  121. 121. LEGEND - - - - Basalt – laterite contact ------ Other contacts * Likely spring locations -.-.-.- Springshed ……. Sub-watershed (picture 2 only) x Management recommendations
  122. 122. LEGEND - - - - Basalt – laterite contact ------ Other contacts * Likely spring locations -.-.-.- Springshed ……. Sub-watershed (picture 2 only) x Management recommendations ** * * *
  123. 123. LEGEND - - - - Basalt – laterite contact ------ Other contacts * Likely spring locations -.-.-.- Springshed ……. Sub-watershed (picture 2 only) x Management recommendations ** * * * X X Protect from fire, reduce grazing, ban wood collection, limit pumping
  124. 124. LEGEND - - - - Basalt – laterite contact ------ Other contacts * Likely spring locations -.-.-.- Springshed ……. Sub-watershed (picture 2 only) x Management recommendations * * * *

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