Mountain Environment


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Mountain Environment

  1. 1. Mountain Environment: Importance & Conservation June 10 2010 Presented by: E-mail: Mob. 9841-323842 ARJUN KUMAR LIMBU, Program Officer Kathmandu Environmental Education Project (KEEP)
  2. 2. Importance : Mountain Environment  Importance: why?  Conservation: How?  Interaction: Q/A  Why? Benefits ISAS (Information Search & Analysis Skill)  Life Betterment.  Knowledge is Power.  Skill is a tool.  Use your Power to use Tool.
  3. 3. Presentation Topics About Nepal Mountain Geography. Mountain Importance Mountain Opportunities Threats & CHALLENGES Mountain Conservation
  4. 4. Mountain steep, sloping sides and sharp or slightly rounded ridges and peaks. -3500 m (SNOWY) – 600 m -1500m -2500m -About 1/5 world's landscape, -homes at least 1/10 world's people. -Tallest known mountain -solar system is Olympus Mons, located on Mars. -mountains under the surface of the sea -Highest Mountain Range: Himalayan -Longest : Andes of Mountain -Himalaya = Andes = Rockies = Alps =
  5. 5.  Elevation : 60 - 8848 m Geographical Division : 3 geographical zones- Mountainous & Hilly (75%), Plain.  HKH Region.  Young Mountain-Australia  Immense Altitudinal Changes  Climatic Great Variations  Diversity of Ecosystems: Rich  many high altitude plants medicinal economic value of mountain people (Yarsa Gumba)
  6. 6. Now, we are here
  7. 7. How Mountain Formed?
  8. 8. Mountain Importance: Cultural • Unique Indigenous Culture, life-style 125 languages spoken in Nepal (Summer Institute of Linguistics)
  9. 9. Mountain Importance: Tourism • Tourism- Development: local income (BHTMC- tell tourists the indepth of indigenous culture, knowledge, tradition) • "The expansion of tourism to villages will contribute more to the economic development.” (Ninth Plan of HMG pg 64) • Over 80 percent of all visitors come for holiday / pleasure or trekking / mountaineering purposes • Major contributor to Nepal's economy: US$170 million annually 463,646 - in the year 2000 (MoCTCA 2001) • Provides direct and indirect employment for over 300,00015% of total export earning. (Nepal Tourism Board 2001) people • Major earner of foreign exchange dollars and represents
  10. 10. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: • One of Asia’s most rich biodiversity. No biodiversity: No life-Food chain • wide range of altitude has contributed to abundant and diverse ecosystem, species and genetic resources. • home of 2% of world’s flowering plants. • 4% of the world’s mammals (the largest population of one horned rhino is found in Royal Chitwan National Park). • 8% of the world’s bird populations, among which the Spiny Babbler is found only in Nepal. • Out of an estimated 1,000 species of indigenous medicinal plants approximately 700 species have been identified.
  11. 11. OTHER UNIQUE FEATURES: • Eight of the world’s 14 highest mountains found in Nepal • The world’s deepest gorges—the Kali Gandaki named after the ferocious goddess Kali, which is also Nepal’s very best river for white water rafting. • Tilicho Lake (at 5,099m) north of Annapurna is one of the highest lakes in the world. • In terms of hydroelectric power, Nepal has the world’s second largest hydroelectric power potential
  12. 12. • Nepal has two natural and eight cultural sites listed as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO • Two Natural Heritage Sites are: Sagarmatha National Park and Chitwan National Park. • The eight Cultural Heritage Sites are: Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Swoyambu Nath, Pashupati Nath, Baudha Nath ,Changunarayan and Lumbini. • Nepal—the largest figure declared for conservation in any country. • 16 Protected Areas in Nepal, i.e 18% of the total area • There are currently nine National Parks, three Wildlife Reserves, three Conservation Areas and one Hunting Reserve.
  13. 13. Mountain importance • Climbers and tourists visit them for the scenery. • Farmers graze their animals on them. • Water authorities make reservoirs and pump the water to towns and cities. • Forestry companies grow coniferous forests and harvest wood on them.
  14. 14. Mountain Importance: Water • Water-power for life: hydroelectricity, drinking, Water Towers of Asia, • One of the World’s richest • Nepal Major economy -cultivation. • Third Pole • Fresh water
  15. 15. Locals Dump Waste in Syabru Besi Dumping Site at Dhunche
  16. 16. GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL Protection of waterways • In Dhunche, the drainage doesn’t reach river system • Syabru Besi, few hotels at the Bank of the river discharge their waste water into the river system • But in Syarbu Besi, though they dump their waste on the river bank they are planning to build a incinerator, • In Gosainkunda during high season, the waste water seeps into the lake. • In Phedi, the toilet is directly flushed into the stream
  17. 17. Dumping Site Under Construction in Syabru Besi Beer Bottles at Lauribina
  18. 18. Mountain Environment: Threats • Mountain systems are sensitive to climate change • Small change has large scale effects, • Unpredicted river flows, frequent floods, droughts and crop failures • Others include, landslides, land degradation, desertification, GLOF ( Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding) • Five GLOF events are known to have occurred in Nepal between 1977 and 1998. In August 1985 a GLOF from the Dig Tsho (Langmoche) glacial lake destroyed 14 bridges and caused about US$ 1.5 million worth of damage to the nearby completed Namche small hydropower plant.
  19. 19. GLOF (Glacial Lake Outburst Flood)
  20. 20. EDMUND HILLARY Deforestation
  21. 21. Mountain Environment Threats:
  22. 22. WASTE DECOMPOSITION  At HIGH ALTITUDE NOTHING decomposes  Batteries contain very pollutant toxic products and cannot be RECYCLED in Nepal  REDUCE canned food products
  23. 23. Mountain Environment: Opportunity Develop mountain by preserving its environment. Leave nothing but footprints ake nothing but photographs." old phrase Leave nothing but Memories ake nothing but local products." new -arjun June 112010
  24. 24. Case Study: Khumbu region • Annual Visitors: Approx 50,000 • Average waste disposal of 50-60kg/km2 • On Average, a lodge in Namche Bazaar produces 15,000 empty beer bottles per year. • Heavy forest cover damage • Alteration in traditional cultural practices • Deterioration on traditional values • Despite the availability of kerosene and LPG, there is a high dependence on forest resources for energy supply. It is estimated that in Langtang, locals consume 20-40 kgs of firewood per day while an average lodges use around 30-40 kgs per day (Banskota, 1998).
  25. 25. Distributing Tourism Benefits
  26. 26. Mountain Environment: Conservation ENERGY SOURCE CONSUMPTION Actions to minimize energy consumption • Firewood major source of energy in upper elevations, • Hotels in the area have installed Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS) and brought energy efficient heaters, • Solar Energy for lighting purposes at Higher Elevations • Travelers usually have torch lights and head lamps
  27. 27. Mountain Environment: Conservation • ECO- TECHNIQUES • • Solar energy • Rain water • Collection and utilization • Bio-climatic design • Local materials • – LOCAL MATERIALS AND PEOCEDURES WILL DEVELOP LOCAL CRAFT AND UNIQUENESS – RECYCLING OF WASTE WILL HELP REDUCE SOLID WASTE PROBLEMS IN THE FPREST OR THE RIVERS • • Issues in Eco-tourism Development • (National Parks, ACAP, Sirubari) • • Avoiding negative impacts • Ensure economic benefits to local communities • Revenue for conservation • Carrying capacity • Ownership and empowerment • Education (Local ECO/GREEN CLUBS)- Life skills equip : leadership, management • Planning and management • Harmonious development • Capacity building • BUILD AWARENESS AND INCULCATE A FEELING THEREBY THAT CONSERVATION IS BY CHOICE RATHER THAN COMPULSION • – External intervention to get the community through the initial stages – User pays concept for the visitor
  28. 28. • “Leave No Trace Principle” • Zero Waste: Challenges in the Mountains • Use of Cotton Bag than Plastics • Higher prices of land and food • Pollution from traffic • Erosion • Litter • More crowded • Trees felled to supply timber and fuel wood • Lost of cultural identity among the mountain people
  29. 29. Waste MINIMIZATION • A Trekker can consumes 72 plastic bottles is left behind as waste • 1 IODINE tablets = 1 liters of Mineral Water • CARRY your waste and don’t LITTER on the TRAILS • Suggestion to Guests.
  30. 30. Mountain Conservation: Challenges Problem Efforts (?) Issues Mountain Environment Responsi Importance bilities (?) Action (?)
  31. 31. Mountain Environment: Importance & Conservation
  32. 32. Interaction  What can we do to address these issues?  Is there anyway ‘Leave no trace’/ ‘Zero waste’?  Whose responsibility?  In your experience, Tourists what they say n do?  What are the locations needed Environment prob?