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Cognitive Behavioral Theory


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Cognitive Behavioral Theory

  1. 1. Cognitive Behavioral Theory
  2. 2. Human behavior is an enigma. A person's behavioral pattern is identified by his thought process, emotional quotient and his response to a certain given situation. So before we go about understanding cognitive behavioral theory, it is important to understand what is cognitive behavior all about? Cognitive psychology is a huge subject that deals with cognitive behavior. The subject focuses on how people think, what they perceive from vision and hearing, how much they retain and remember and how they react to a stimuli. Precisely, cognitive behavioral therapy also closely associates itself with neuroscience, linguistics and philosophy. One of the aspects of this theory also deals with enhancing the decisive ability of a person and his memory to retain more information. So let's dig more facts and finds in the history of this theory, before we get to understand it better!
  3. 3. CBT, classified under psychotherapy, is known by several other names like Cognitive Therapy, Rational Behavior Therapy, Dialectical BehavioTherapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, etc. But how did this theory come into existence? Let's take a ride back in time, to know some of the famous psychiatrists who have been instrumental in designing this theory.
  4. 4. 1. Albert Ellis He was a famous American psychologist who developed the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in the 1950s. As per his approach, the human tendency is such that the person always wants to remain happy and gay, but life does not allow it. His revelations further stated that it is not just the events and circumstances that bring the feeling of sadness or sorrow, but such feelings of negation are also factored by the thought process and beliefs of the person. This idea was however, articulated about 2000 years back by the famous Greek philosopher Epictetus, whose famous lines illustrate this belief, "Men are disturbed not by events, but by the views which they take of them". Albert further stated that the cognitive thought process of a human being is controlled more by beliefs, most of which, he believed to be irrational. These beliefs are also known as "The Three Basic Musts", which include the feeling of "must do well at any cost" (leads to anxiety symptoms and depression otherwise), "must be treated fairly as expected by human nature" (leads to rage and passive aggressive behavior otherwise) and "must get what is expected" (leads to procrastination and self pity otherwise). Besides he also has stated about the sense of disputing thoughts, insight and acceptance towards situations.
  5. 5. 2. Aaron Beck In the 1960s, Aaron Beck, a famous psychiatrist with a background in psychoanalytical training, further explored the untouched arenas of human personality, like depression and procrastination. If Ellis was supposedly the founder of this psychological theory, Aaron took a leap ahead and explored more into this theory and came up with cognitive behavioral therapy for treating patients suffering from depression and anxiety. He has stated that many times, people tend to suffer from depression and anxiety disorders because of a pre formed negative assessment of themselves. Such an assessment could be attributed to various reasons such as a prolonged mental trauma, social aloofness and low self-esteem. His theory has been used for devising the modern-day cognitive behavioral therapies. To get a comprehensive understanding on this theory, one should read The Cognitive Theory of Depression by Aaron Beck.
  6. 6. Albert Bandura The history of cognitive behavioral therapy remains incomplete without the mention of Albert Bandura, the famous psychologist from Canada who has given valuable inputs to cognitive development theory. As per his learnings, the cognitive behavior of a man is greatly factored by aggression, which is an outcome of restricted emotions that have been bottled up for quite some time. His theory of cognitive behavior in humans mainly revolved around the concept of observation, attention and retention. He further stated that a person develops his instincts, intelligence and beliefs from his cognitive mind mapping (includes observation of the environment around him). Say, a person observes an incident. If it is interesting, he gives full attention to it and then retains it in his memory if he finds it interesting. Then he tries to apply his knowledge wherever his thought process allows him to. This is how the behavioral patterns of a person develop. Albert Bandura's theories on cognitive behavior have proved to be quite realistic. In 1977, Albert Bandura was honored as the Father of Cognitive Theory.
  7. 7. So now that we know a little bit about the history of this behavioral theory, let's understand in detail about what this theory has to say, in modern-day. Cognition, the term itself means, to conceptualize, to know, to recognize. Precisely, it is the thought process which covers grasping the knowledge, remembering it, applying it, developing beliefs on it, reasoning it and retaining it. So this theory can be defined as 'a study that is descriptive about how the concept of cognition plays an important role in determining the behavioral pattern of a person'. Let's figure out, how the theory is applicable in understanding and judging various personalities.
  8. 8. Behavioral Theory
  9. 9. The flow behavior behaviorism is a philosophy or in psychology based on the proposition that all organisms are made including actions, thoughts, or feelings can and should be regarded as a behavior. Flow is of the opinion that such behavior can be described scientifically without seeing the internal physiological events or hypothetical construct as the mind. Behaviorism assumes that all theories should have a base that can be observed but there was no difference between the processes can be observed in public (action) with the observed process in person (thoughts and feelings).
  10. 10. In the theory of behaviorism, to analyze only the visible behavior only, which can be measured, described, and predicted. Behavoris the theory known as learning theory, since all human behavior is the result of learning. Learning means perbahan organise behavior as environmental influences. Behaviorism does not want memperoalkan whether good or bad man, rational or emotional; behaviorism just want to know how his behavior is drived by environmental factors.
  11. 11. Learning theory in the sense that more emphasis on human behavior. Regard the individual as being reactive to the environment memberirespon. And maintenance experience will shape their behavior. From this, timbulah concept of "human machine" (Homo Mechanicus). The hallmark of this theory is the priority of the elements and a small part, is mechanistic, emphasizes the role of the environment, concerned with the formation of a reaction or response, emphasizing the importance of training, emphasis on the mechanisms of learning, emphasis on the role and ability to learn the results obtained is the emergence of the desired behavior. On learning theory is often called SR psychological meaning that human behavior is controlled by the reward or reinforcement or reward and reinforcement from the environment. Thus the behavior of the fabric there is a close study of behavioral reactions to the stimulus. Teachers who hold this view that the behavior of students a reaction to the environment and behavior is the result of learning.
  12. 12. The principles of the behavioral theory : 1.The object of psychology is behavior 2.All forms of behavior in the return on the reflex 3.Importance of habit formation
  13. 13. Aristoteles argued that the human soul was born not have anything, like a candle that is ready to table painted by the experience. According to John Locke (1632-1704), one of the empirical character, at the time of birth will have no "mental colors". This color is derived from experience. Experience is the only way into the possession of knowledge. Ideas and knowledge is the product of experience. Psychologically, all human behavior, personality, and temperament is determined by sensory experience (sensory experience). Thoughts and feelings are caused by past behavior. The assumption that experience is the most influential dala formation behavior, implying how plastisnya humans. He is easily formed into any environment by creating relevant.
  14. 14. A. Edward Lee Thorndike (1874 -1949) According to Thorndike studied the formation of associations of events anatara event called stimulus and response. This learning theory called the theory of "connectionism". Experiments carried out with the cat is put on the cage when the door closed can be opened automatically when knob is touched on in the cage. The experiments resulted in the theory of Trial and Error. The characteristics studied by Trial and Error is: a) the activities, there are different responses to various situations, b) elimination against the wrong responses, c) there is progress reactions to reach the goal.
  15. 15. Thorndike finds laws. 1) The law of readiness (Law of Readiness): If an organism is supported by a strong readiness for the implementation of behavioral stimulus will lead to individual satisfaction that asosaiasi likely to be strengthened. 2) The law practice: The more often a behavior trained or used, the stronger the association. 3) Law of effect: stimulus and response relationship tends to be reinforced if the result is fun and tend to be weakened if cause unsatisfactory.
  16. 16. B. Ivan Petrovich Pavlo (1849-1936) Classical theory: Is a pair of neutral stimuli or stimuli that are conditioned by certain non- conditioned stimuli, which gave birth to a particular behavior. After installation this happens repeatedly, gave birth to the neutral stimuli are conditioned responses.
  17. 17. Pavlo laboratories experimenting on dogs. In this experiment the dog was given the stimulus conditionally conditionally so that the reaction occurs in dogs. Examples of such experiments on the human situation is the sound of the bell in the class for the time marker unwittingly causes the process of tagging something that sounds different from the food merchants, bell, and the queue at the bank. From these examples Pavlo strategy was applied to the individual can be controlled by means of replacing natural stimulus with the right stimulus to get the desired response repetition. While individuals are not consciously controlled by external stimuli. Learning according to this theory is a process of change that occurs because of the conditions that give rise to reaksi.Yang important in learning according to this theory is the practice and repetition. The weakness of this theory is to learn just happen automatically ignored liveliness and personal determination.
  18. 18. C. Skinner (1904-1990) Skinner considers reward and rierforcement an important role in learning factor. Skinner argues that the goal of psychology is to predict the behavior of control. Pda theory teacher reward prizes or a high value so that the child will be more diligent. This theory is also called operant conditioning. . Operans conditioning is a process of strengthening operans behavior that can lead to such behavior can be started again or disappear as you wish. Operant conditing guarantee stimuli. If showed no response to stimuli then the teacher can not guide the student to direct his behavior. Teachers have a role in controlling and directing students in the learning process in order to reach the desired goal.
  19. 19. Skinners learning principles are:  The results of the study should be notified immediately if any student is given a fixed if amplifier.  The learning process should follow the rhythm of the study.  The subject matter is used as a module system. first importance in the learning process of the activity itself, not to use punishment.  For environments that need to be changed to avoid punishment.  Educators desired behaviors are rewarded and the reward should be given to use of the variable ratio schedule of reinforcer.  In learning to use shapping.
  20. 20. D. Albert Bandura (1925-present) It turned out that not all behavior can be explained by pelaziman. Bandura adds the concept of social learning (social learning). He questioned the role of reward and punishment in the learning process. The traditional behaviorism to explain that the words originally no meaning, or paired with a pile of objects that have meaning.
  21. 21. Bandura's theory of learning is social learning theory or social cognitive and self-efficacy demonstrated the importance of observing and imitating the behaviors, attitudes and emotions of others. Bandura's theory explains human behavior in the context of reciprocal interaction behavior between kognitine continuous behavioral and environmental influences. Factors which proceeds in the observation is attention, memory, motor production, motivation. Behaviorsime is rather difficult to explain motivation. Motivation occurs within the individual, while the behaviorists just look at external events. Feelings and thoughts of people do not attract them. Behaviorism emerged as a reaction to the psychology of "mentalistic". Behaviorsime is rather difficult to explain motivation. Motivation occurs within the individual, while the behaviorists just look at external events. Fe
  22. 22. Cognitive Theory
  23. 23. VJean Piaget, (1896-1980) Piaget divided schemes that children use to understand the world through four main periods are correlated with and more sophisticated with age : a) The sensorimotor (age 0-2 years) b) preoperational period (ages 2-7 years) c) The period of concrete operations (ages 7-11 years) d) The period of formal operations (ages 11 years to adult)
  24. 24. A. Stages of sensorimotor According to Piaget, infants born with some innate reflexes as well as encouragement to explore his world. The scheme was originally formed through the differentiation of the congenital reflexes. Sensorimotor period is the period of the first four periods. Piaget argued that this stage marks the development of essential spatial abilities and understanding in the six sub-stages: 1) Sub-reflex scheme stage: occurs from birth to age six weeks and is associated primarily with the reflex. 2) Sub-stage primary circular reaction phase: from ages six weeks to four months and is associated particularly with the advent of habits.
  25. 25. 3) Sub-stage phase of secondary circular reactions: appears between the ages of four to nine months and is associated primarily with the coordination between vision and meaning. 4) Sub-phase coordination of secondary circular reactions: emerging from ages nine to twelve months, while developing the ability to see objects as permanent even though it seems different when viewed from different angles (object permanence). 5) Sub-stage tertiary circular reaction phase: appears at the age of twelve to eighteen months and is associated primarily with the discovery of new ways to achieve goals. 6) Early stages of the sub-symbolic representation: relates primarily to the early stages of creativity.
  26. 26. B. Preoperational stages This stage is the second stage of the four stages. By observing sequences of play, Piaget was able to show that after the end of the second year a qualitatively new kind of psychological functioning occurs. Preoperative thinking in Piaget's theory is a procedure to act mentally on these objects. The hallmark of this stage is a rare mental operations and logically inadequate. In this stage, children learn to use and represent objects with images and words. Thinking is still egocentric nature: the child difficult to see from others' viewpoints. The child can classify objects using one characteristic, such as collecting all the red objects of different shapes while collecting all the objects round or even a different color. Pre-operational phase following the sensorimotor stage and appear between ages two to six years. In this stage, children develop the language skills. They begin representing things with words and pictures. However, they still use intuitive rather than logical reasoning. At the beginning of this stage, they tend to be egocentric, that is, they can not understand his place in the world and how they relate to each other. They have difficulty understanding how the feelings of those around him. But as maturation, the ability to understand another person's perspective, the better. The child has a very imaginative mind at the moment and consider every living thing that does not have any feelings.
  27. 27. C. Stage of concrete operations This stage is the third stage of the four stages. Appear between the ages of six to twelve years and has characteristics of an adequate use of logic. These processes are important during this phase are: 1. Ordering: ability to mengurutan objects by size, shape, or other characteristics. For example, if given different-sized objects, they can be sorted from the largest object to smallest. 2. Classification: the ability to name and identify a set of objects according to appearance, size, or other characteristics, including the idea that a set of objects can include other objects into the circuit. Children no longer have the limitations of logic in the form of animism (the notion that all living things and feeling) 3. Decentering: children begin to consider some aspects of a problem to solve. For example, the child will no longer consider a wide but short cup less content than the small cups are high.
  28. 28. 3. Reversibility: the child understands that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to its initial state. To that end, the child can quickly determine that if 4 +4 equals 8, 8-4 will equal 4, the number before. 4. Conservation: understanding that quantity, length or number of items is not related to the setting or appearance of the object or the objects. For example, if the child was given a cup the size and contents are the same lot, they will know when water is poured into another glass of different sizes, the water in the glass will remain the same lot with the contents of another cup. 5. Disappearance of egocentrism properties: the ability to see things from the viewpoint of others (even when people are thinking the wrong way). For example, show the comic puppet show Siti store in the box, and then left the room, then Ujang move the doll into a drawer, only then Siti back into the room. Children in concrete operations stage will say that Jane will still think it's in the box even though the boy knew that the doll has been moved into the drawer by Ujang.
  29. 29. D. Stage of formal operations Formal operational stage is the last period of cognitive development in Piaget's theory. This stage children begin to be experienced in eleven years of age (puberty) and continues into adulthood. Characteristics of this stage is the acquisition of the ability to think abstractly, reason logically, and draw conclusions from available information. In this stage, one can understand such things as love, logical proof, and value. He does not see things only in black and white, but there are "shades of gray" in between. Judging from biological factors, this phase appears at puberty (when there is a variety of other major change), marking its entry into the adult world in physiological, cognitive, moral reasoning, psychosexual development, and social development. Some people do not fully achieved until the development stage, so he does not have the skills to think as an adult and still use the reasoning of the concrete operational stage. Keep in mind, that at each stage can not move to the next ketahap when the previous stage has not been completed and any age can not be the main criterion one is certain because it depends on the stage of development characteristics of each individual. It could be a child will experience the preoperational stage longer than any other child that age is not the main criterion.
  30. 30. General information about the stages The fourth stage has the following characteristics: a) Although the stages can be achieved in age vary but the order is always the same. There are no skipped steps and no reverse order. b) Universal (not culturally) c) can be generalized: the representation and the logic of existing operations in a person applies to all the concepts and content knowledge d) The steps are a logically organized whole e) The order of hierarchical stages (each stage includes elements of previous stages, but is more differentiated and integrated) f) Stages represent qualitative differences in modes of thinking, not just a quantitative difference
  31. 31. Development process An individual in his life is always interacting with the environment. Interact with them, one will obtain the scheme. Schemes form a category of knowledge that helps in interpreting and understanding the world. The scheme also describes the actions both mentally and physically involved in understanding or knowing something. So in view of Piaget, the scheme covers both categories of knowledge and the knowledge acquisition process. Along with the experience of exploring the environment, newly acquired information is used to modify, add, or replace a previously existing schemes. For example, a child may have a scheme of the kind of animal, such as birds. If the child's early experiences related to canaries, child may assume that all birds are small, yellow, and squeak. At one point, the child may see an ostrich. The child will need to modify the scheme which he had before about the birds to enter this new bird species.
  32. 32. • Assimilation is the process of adding new information into existing schemes. This process is subjective, because one tends to modify the experience or information obtained in order to enter into a pre-existing scheme. • Accommodation is a form of adjustment that involves the conversion or replacement of the scheme as a result of new information that is incompatible with the existing scheme. In this process may also occur the appearance of the new scheme. Through the adjustment process, the system is changing and evolving one's cognition that can increase from one stage to the top. Adjustment process is carried out an individual because he wanted to achieve a state of equilibrium, namely a state of balance between much cognitive structure with environmental experience. Someone will always try to be a state of balance is always achieved by using both the adjustment process in atas.Dengan Thus, a person's cognition develops not because of receiving knowledge from outside the person passively but actively construct knowledge.
  33. 33. Conclution According to Piaget, cognitive development has four aspects, namely: 1. maturity, as a result of development of the nervous system 2. experience, the mutual relationship between the world orgnisme 3. social interaction, the effects obtained in conjunction with the social environment 4. ekullibration, namely the ability or the system is set up within the organism so that he always mempau maintain balance and adjust to their environment. According to Piaget every living organism tends to perform adaptation and organization.
  34. 34. In the process of adaptation and organization rerdapat 4 basic concepts that : 1) Scheme 2) Assimilation 3) Accommodation 4) Equilibration Stage of cognitive development of children can be understood that at some stage how children construct knowledge and abilities vary by intellectual maturity of the child. On this theory the consequences dalah fatherly skills students should have to adjust or adapt as appropriate.