The Science of Psychologya. Historical Origins of Psychologyb. Goals of Psychologyc. Fields of Specializationd. Viewpoints in Psychology d.1 Schools of Thought d.2 Contemporary Approaches
Psychology A scientific study of human behavior Said to be the brain child of philosophy A process of trying to understand human need, motion, stimulation and what lay behind choices made through every step of human life. Scientific study of the behavior of man and lower animals.
Psychology(Psyche) – soul (Logos) – study - is a science that gather facts systematically organizes into general principle and formulates theories. Psychology as a Science Science – is a branch of knowledge or a study dealing with a body of facts or truth
Behavior – refers to action or activity of the individual as matter of physiological study. Behavior can be: 1. overtly - outward behavior 2. covert – hidden not visible to the naked eyes. Behavior can be: 1. conscious - acts maybe in the level of one’s awareness 2. unconscious – acts deeply embedded in one subconscious
Behavior may be: 1. Simple - involves few neurons 2. complex – more number of neurons Behavior can be: 1. Rational – exercised with sanity or reason. 2. Irrational – acts committed for no apparent reason or explanation
Behavior can be : 1. Voluntary – done with full volition of ill. 2. Involuntary – process within our body that go even while we are asleep or awake.
Objectives of the study of Psychology: 1. To have an improve understanding of one’s own feelings and behavior. To gain new insights into his/her own personality so that she/ he can adjust more feasibly with his fellow beings. 2. To arouse in the students an interest in the science of psychology. The student is expected to improve his understanding of how psychology functions as a science (What it tells about man and animals). “ The more a student knows about the science of psychology , the better he is expected to cope with his problem”.
Fields of Specialization 1. Counseling Psychology: understanding and helping people solve the more or less ordinary but nonetheless important questions they face. 2. Clinical Psychology: attempts to understand person who have emotional or other difficulties. 3. Environmental Psychology : emphasizes psychological aspects of ecology. Science between organism and the environment. 4. Human Engineering: concerned with human problems and design of instrument, machines.
5. Humanistic Psychology : emphasize the whole person (motivations, goals, creativity and the like. 6. Industrial Psychology : helping to solve human relations problem of business industry. 7. Physiological Psychology : studies the effect of the individual’s body and its structure and functioning on his behavior. 8. School Psychology : understanding the problem of school system, teacher-administration relationships and teacher – pupil relationship. 9. Social Psychology: studies the individual in the group including the effect of the individual on his group and its effect on him.
Historical Background I. Traditional Psychology started with man’s earliest speculation regarding human nature. II . Greek Influences A. Democritus (460 – 370 B.C) Human mind is composed of Atoms. Atoms from our environment enter through our sense organs enabling us to perceive the world around us.
B. Plato ( 427 – 347 B.C) Mind and Soul is distinct in its own right and is God given. Mind / Soul enter the body with reflected prediction of God Mind / Soul rule the body which it inhabits as knower (thinker and determinant of action).
Soul has three (3) parts 1. Head ( reason) 2. Heart (responsible for our noble impulses) 3. Diaphragm (seat of our own passion).
C. ARISTOTLE ( 384 – 322 B.C.) 3 functions of the Soul: vegetative – basic maintenance of life. Appetitive - motives and desires Rational – governing function located in the heart The BRAIN merely performs minor mechanical processes as a gland.
HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF PSYCHOLOGYARISTOTLE – A Greek philosopher who is regarded by many as the FATHER OF PSYCHOLOGY Wrote the first book in Psychology “Para Psyche” meaning about mind or soul. Believed that the mind or soul is the cause and principle of body or that which animates the body
ARISTOTLE – He also believed that there are three kinds of souls: plant souls, animal souls and human souls HUMAN SOUL – that is capable of reason He also theorized about learning, memory, motivation, emotion and perception and personality Contended that human mind is a tabula rasa or an empty slate
RENE DESCARTES A French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer Founder of Modern Philosophy Father of Modern Mathematics “Cogito ergo sum” or I think therefore I am Concluded that there are other things or ideas that are certain and that are innate or inborn such as God, time and space, the world of mathematics.
Aristotle John Locke Rene DescartesCharles Darwin Sigmund Freud
JOHN LOCKE Cemented by his Essay concerning Human Understanding He believed on the ideas such as God, good or evil are innate at birth According to him variety of beliefs, non-beliefs and moralities the so-called innate ideas could have not been possible
JOHN LOCKE Believed in the good nature of humans, an instinct for social good and the ability to reason He believed that matter and mind could not be empirically proven to exist because when they try to look these things, we all see are qualities of it and not matter mind itself.
CHARLES DARWIN An English naturalist and geologist from England who is best known for his Theory of Natural Selection According to him species change or evolve into a variation that would most likely survive in the particular environment they are in.
ERNST WEBER A German physiologist who made use of measurements in his study of the relation of stimulus and mental experience He was known for the techniques he developed: the two point threshold and the justice noticeable difference A law named after him the Weber’s Law
Gustav Fechner A German physiologist whose medical training and interest in physics and psychology paved way for investigation of mental processes using scientific methodologies DOUBLE ASPECTISM – or the belief that all of physical nature has a mental counter part of mind or soul led him to develop Psychophysics
PSYCHOPHYSICS The study of the systematic relationships between physical events and mental events.HERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ The most famous German scientist of the 19th century He became a medical doctor and a physiologist but his first love was physics
HERMAN VON HELMHOLTZ Noted Contribution are: theory regarding the conservation of energy Invention of the ophthalmoscope Researches on sight and hearing Papers on geometry and physics
FRANCIS GALTON First cousin of Charles Darwin and an intellect who had a lot of contributions to different field of science as well as mathematics. He devised the first weather maps, invented the electrocardiograph and devised method of classifying fingerprints He was the first to measure intelligence and develop questionnaires and surveys in collecting data about humans FATHER OF PSYCHOMETRICS / FATHER OF MENTAL TEST
WILHELM WUNDT FATHER OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY FATHER OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY The first one to be called a PSYCHOLOGIST
G. STANLEY HALL An American student of Wilhelm Wundt who also made a lasting contributions to psychology First to have established a psychological laboratory in the United States at John Hopkins University in 1883 Founded the American Journal of Psychology in 1887 First president of American Psychological Association
Different Schools of Psychology Different ideas about psychology. What to include and not to include in Psychology. What it should emphasize ? What research methods to be used? Group of Psychologists who agreed and associated with the leader of the movement. They shared the same ideas about what psychology was and how it was to be studied.
Early Schools of Thought in PsychologySTRUCTURALISM Pioneered by Wilhelm Wundt EDWARD B. TITCHENER – who brought the paradigm to the United States and coined the termSTRUCTURALISM Is concerned about consciousness and the elements or structures that form its makeup
INTROSPECTION Self examination as a methodologyThe following details for the method:3. The observer must know when the experience begins and ends4. The observer must maintain “strained attention”5. The phenomenon must bear repetition6. The phenomenon must be capable of variation
FUNCTIONALISM Was led by America’s first and leading psychologist WILLIAM JAMES Published book known as “The Principles of Psychology”PRAGMATISM No idea could be concluded as true or false All that we believe in are all “maybes”
FUNCTIONALISM Focus on the usefulness, function, practicality and consequence of behavior as opposed to its structures EXAMPLE – a behavior as simple as smiling should be understood as to its usefulness such as to express emotion, to greet or even to express sarcasm
Psychology was functional one whose aim was not to reduce mind to elements but to study consciousness as an ongoing process. William James: The subject matter of psychology was the study of organism as a whole functioning in his environment.
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY Founded by MAX WERTHEIMER, WOLFGANG KOHLER, KURT KOFFKA GESTALT Is a German word actually means a “unified or meaningful whole” “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY – seeing movement when there is none maybe considered as an illusion Applied in other areas of perception, particularly in grouping and in organizing
BEHAVIORISM Originated in Russia Founded by IVAN PAVLOV known for his learning model of CLASSICAL CONDITIONING In America, leading behaviorists were: a. EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE b. BURRHUS FREDERICK SKINNER C. JOHN B. WATSON
BEHAVIORISM In order for psychology to be true science, it should only study what is observable – the environment and behavior Others such as thoughts, feelings or consciousness, are useless to psychology because they are subjective, not observable, therefore not measurable
Psychology as the science of behavior, acts are to describe objectively in terms of stimulus response habit formation, habit integration. View of Human: Human behavior is learned and all behavior is the result of environmental forces and the individual’s genetic endowments . Decision making as one kind of behavior. Therefore, Individual is seen as having an equal potential for positive and negative tendencies.
B. F. Skinner: “Radical Behaviorism” Humans are controlled by environmental conditions. Human Being is governed by choice and freedom. They reject the concept of the person as a “free agent” who shapes his / her own destiny. Past and present situations in the objective world determine behavior. Therefore, The environment is the primary shaper of human existence.
PSYCHOANALYSIS Developed by SIGMUND FREUD MIND IS DIVIDED INTO 3 PARTS CONSCIOUS – contains information that we are aware of in a give period of time PRECONSCIOUS – it is the storehouse of information that is easily retrievable to consciousness UNCONSCIOUS – contains things that are difficult to access or to be made aware of
Human beings are basically determined by psychic energy and by early experiences. Unconscious motives , irrational forces are strong and present behavior. View of Human Nature: Human nature is essentially pessimistic, deterministic, mechanistic and reductionistic. Human are viewed as energy system. The dynamics of personality consists of the ways in which the psychic energy is distributed (id, ego, super- ego).
All human behavior as determined by the desire to gain pleasure and avoid pain. Human are both life instinct and death instinct. The goal of life is Death. Life is a roundabout way to death.
EXISTENTIALISM Is more of a philosophy, it emphasizes on the creative process, freedom and uniqueness or individual existenceHUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY The offspring of Gestalt psychology emphasizes people’s tendency to actualize or realize his full potentialsCOGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Focus on the importance of mental process such as thinking, organizing, memory and planning in understanding human behavior
Philosophy of Humanistic Humans are capable of self awareness. The unique and distinctive capacity to think and to decide. The power to choose among alternatives – to decide freely within the framework of limitation. “ With freedom to choose and act comes a responsibility”.
Being Human we have to face ultimate aloneness, a person comes into the world alone and leaves alone. Therefore, we have to relate to other in a meaningful relationship for human are RATIONAL BEING. Failure to create meaningful relationship will lead to ISOLATION,LONELINESS,ALIENATION.
In summary: Psychology -( Psyche : means “soul” • Logos : study • “ study of the soul” • Greek developed empirical method (information gained from direct observation and measurement). • They used the assumptions without verifying them. • They did much speculation about the motivational aspects of human behavior. • They replaced Psyche as Mind. Therefore, Psychology is the study of the mind.
Renaissance Scientist : Introduced the idea that observations could be further objectified through measurements.German Psychologists / Physicists : used measurement and techniques to study sensation and laid foundation to scientific psychology.
School of thoughts Structuralism : Psychology should be concerned with identifying and studying the elements that form the structure of consciousness and analyze experience into basic elements.” Consciousness is an ever changing stream or flow of images and sensation”. Functionalism : Functionalism studies the behavior by analyzing its elements and proposed that it is to be studied in terms of forms or organization. Focused on the operations/functions of conscious activity. Behaviorism : It explains human behavior though relationship of stimulus. To understand human behavior take into account what environment does. To study observable and measurable behavior not consciousness Stress the importance of learning and influence of environment.
Gestalt: Psychology should study the whole pattern of behavior, experience or the perception of the organized configuration. They emphasize the study of THINKING, LEARNING, PERCEPTION into whole units not into parts.
PSYCHOANALYSIS Behavior is constantly influenced by unconscious thoughts. The central aspects of Human behavior : Human Desires and Primitive Impulses.
Activity: CHAPTER 1 Based on the information you have acquired recently regarding psychology, write an essay about your views concerning how this course could be potential use to you. It may be an areas of relationships, academics, self improvement or your future endeavors..