Ibahrine Chapter 3 Value Culture


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  • IDEAS – Theories about how the world operates (scientific knowledge), strongly held notions about what is right and wrong (values), and traditional beliefs, legends, and customs (folklore). Marketers must understand and take into consideration a soceity’s ideas to properly communicate to them and motivate them. NORMS – Specific rules of behavior. Folkway (everyday behavioral norms). Folkways differ country to country. Laws are codified norms. Even what is considered scientific methods and standards varies country to country. Norms affect buyer behavior in a country. MATERIAL CULTURE – Things produced by a culture. Africa houses – one region square houses with thatched roofs or roofs of corrogated metal. In another region round houses with steep pitch roof. “We have always produced them this way.” Marketers produce the material culture that embody a society’s ideas and norms. Example – Ask class what USA ideas they associate with McDonalds. Students usually mention convenience, immediate gratification, value, and STANDARDIZATION. Point out that every customer is normatively treated the same—served the same food in the same way for the same price in the same place. McDonalds’ buildings are part of the material culture that they produce that reflect this norm—there is one place where customers order food and one dining room. In Saudi Arabia, it is not normative to serve men and women in the same place. There are “family rooms” for women and children. McDonalds had to adapt to the local norms of Saudi Arabia and adapt the material culture it produces. McDonalds in Saudi Arabia have family rooms where women and children eat. This issue sparked a debate in the Washington Post in 2001-2002. The quote comes from an editorial response written by a woman living in Saudi Arabia. To read about this debate, check out the following articles: King, Colbert I. 2001. “Saudi Arabia’s Apartheid” Washington Post 12 December: A23. -----. 2002. “When in Saudi Arabia…Do as Americans Do” Washington Post , 2 February: A23. Aykurt, Susan. “Walk a Mile in Our Abayas” Washington Post , 12 February: A 24.
  • Ibahrine Chapter 3 Value Culture

    1. 1. Chapter 3 Values and Culture American University of Sharjah College of Arts and Sciences Department of Mass Communication Dr. Ibahrine
    2. 2. Chapter 1 Objectives Define the key terms value and culture Explain the importance of the value in global marketing and advertising
    3. 3. In-class exercise <ul><li>Make a list of three of your own values </li></ul><ul><li>Compare them with lists of classmates </li></ul><ul><li>Do the majority of the class share the same values? </li></ul>0
    4. 4. Socialization <ul><ul><li>The social Processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization continues throughout life </li></ul></ul>0
    5. 5. The Value Concept <ul><li>According to Rokeach (1973) a value is </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ an enduring belief that one mode of conduct or end-state of existence is preferable to an opposing mode of conduct or end-state of existence’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(The Nature of Huuman Value, 5.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The value Concept <ul><li>Value system is a </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ learned orrganisation of principles and rules to help one choose between alterbnatives, resolve conflicts, and make decisions’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The value Concept <ul><li>Preferences can lead to action </li></ul><ul><li>When expressed in an abstract way, preferences seem to be universal </li></ul>
    8. 8. The value Concept <ul><li>Value priorities vary </li></ul><ul><li>In a value system values are ordered in priority with respect to other values </li></ul><ul><li>Priority of values </li></ul>
    9. 9. The value Concept <ul><li>Dinstinguish between values of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals and collectives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macro- and micro-level values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(layer of culture) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fact or value orientations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Values Are Enduring <ul><li>Values are learned at early age, unconsciously </li></ul><ul><li>Our value system works as an automatic pilot </li></ul><ul><li>Macro-level (cultural) values are stable </li></ul><ul><li>Change is in the expressions of cultural values </li></ul><ul><li>Value differences of young people are similar to differences of average populations </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Value Paradox: the desirable and the desired <ul><li>There are two opposing aspects to values: </li></ul><ul><li>The desirable: What people think ought to be desired </li></ul><ul><li>The desired: what people actually desire </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Value Paradox: the desirable and the desired <ul><li>The desirable: refers to the general norms of a society and is worded in terms of right or wrong, in absolute terms </li></ul><ul><li>The desired: is what we want, what we consider important for ourselves </li></ul>
    13. 13. The Value Paradox: the desirable and the desired The desirable The norm, what ought Words Approval, disapproval What is good, right For people in general Ideology The desired What people want for themselves Deeds Choice Attractive, preferred For me and for you Pragmatism
    14. 14. Culture Defined <ul><li>Learned and shared ways of doing things and solving problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a society (national culture) or in a company (company culture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The glue that binds people together </li></ul><ul><li>If there are no shared ways of doing things it is difficult to live or work together </li></ul>
    15. 15. Culture Defined <ul><li>Culture … </li></ul><ul><li>is particular way of life which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning, but also in institutions and ordinary behavior (Williams, 1965) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Culture Defined <ul><li>The anthologist Clifford Geertz views culture as </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ a set of control mechanism – plans, recipes rules, instructions for the governing of the body’ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Culture Defined <ul><li>We are individuals under the guidance of cultural patterns, historically created systems of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising reflects these wider systems of meaning </li></ul>
    18. 18. Creative Meaning <ul><li>What is meaning ? </li></ul>11/10/09
    19. 19. Definition of Meaning <ul><li>Meaning can be thought of as the perceptions (thoughts) and affective reactions (feelings) that are evoked within a person when presented with a sign in a particular context </li></ul>11/10/09
    20. 20. Creative Meaning <ul><li>Semiotics, broadly speaking, is the study of signs and the analysis of meaning-producing events </li></ul><ul><li>The important point of emphasis is that the semiotics perspective sees meaning as a constructive process </li></ul>11/10/09
    21. 21. Creative Meaning <ul><li>Meaning is determined both by </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The message source's choice of communication elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The receiver's unique social-cultural background </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mind-set at the time he or she is exposed to a message </li></ul></ul></ul>11/10/09
    22. 22. Creative Meaning <ul><li>Meaning is not thrust upon consumers rather, consumers are actively involved in constructing meaning from advertising messages </li></ul>11/10/09
    23. 23. Creative Meaning <ul><li>The fundamental concept in semiotics is the sign, the noun counterpart to the verb signify </li></ul><ul><li>Formally, a sign is something physical and perceivable that signifies something (the referent) to somebody (the interpreter) in some context </li></ul>11/10/09
    24. 24. Acculturation Defined <ul><li>Cultural values are not outside but inside the minds of people, part of their identity </li></ul>0
    25. 25. Cultural Universals <ul><li>- Manifestations of the total way of life of a group of people. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes elements such as body adornments, courtship, etiquette, family gestures, joking, mealtimes, music, personal names, status differentiation, and trade. </li></ul>0
    26. 26. Cultural Universals <ul><li>Universals formulated in abstract terms: happiness, love </li></ul><ul><li>What makes people happy varies </li></ul><ul><li>Universal need = to be healthy, but how people relate to their health varies: active sports, fitness vs purity in food or use of medication </li></ul>
    27. 27. Cultural Universals <ul><li>Universals formulated in abstract terms: </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>In marketing and advertising , we express values and motives in a concrete way </li></ul><ul><li>The most universality disappears </li></ul>
    28. 28. Selective Perception <ul><li>What people see is a function of what they have learned to see in the course of growing up </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual patterns are learned and culturally determined </li></ul><ul><li>You see what you want to see </li></ul><ul><li>You do not see what you can not see because it does not fit with your experience, your prior learning </li></ul><ul><li>We perceive what we expect to perceive </li></ul>
    29. 29. Selective Perception <ul><li>Consumers are increasingly selective in an age of communication overload </li></ul><ul><li>Culture reinforces this selective process </li></ul><ul><li>Messages that don’t fit one’s perceptual pattern are ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>We perceive ads in light of our cultural map </li></ul>
    30. 30. Stereotyping <ul><li>Mental placement of people in categories </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes can be functional or dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When we accept it as a natural process to guide our expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When we used to judge individuals incorrectly, seeing them only as part of group </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Stereotyping <ul><li>Stereotypes are in the eye of the beholder’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>They are relative </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising depends on the use of effective stereotypes because it must attract attention and create instant recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Advertsiing simplifies reality and thus has to use stereotypes </li></ul>
    32. 32. Stereotyping <ul><li>Advertising messages are generally short and if audiences do not immmediatle recognize what th emessage is about, it is lost </li></ul>
    33. 33. Spain: stereotype of non-existent German sense of humor
    34. 34. Culture as an onion Symbols Heroes Rituals Values Expressions
    35. 35. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Symbols are words, gestures, pictiures or objects that carry a patrticular meaning recognized only by those who share a culture </li></ul>
    36. 36. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Heroes are persons alive or dead, real or imaginary who possess characteriscs that rae highly prized in a society and who thus serve as role models for behaviors </li></ul>
    37. 37. Expressions of culture
    38. 38. Expressions of culture
    39. 39. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Rituals are the collective activities considered socially essential within a culture </li></ul><ul><li>They are carried out for their own sake </li></ul>
    40. 40. Expressions of culture
    41. 41. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Values are enduring beliefs that one mode of conduct or end-state of existence is preferable to an opposing mode of conduct or end-state of existence </li></ul>
    42. 42. Expressions of culture <ul><li>At the core of culture lie value </li></ul><ul><li>Values do not translate easily becaue words expressing values have abstract meaning </li></ul>
    43. 43. Expressions of culture <ul><li>This explains the difficulty of translating advertising copy into languages other than the one in which it is initially conceived </li></ul>
    44. 44. Creating Ads for Global Markets Campaign Transferability Debate Too expensive to create a unique campaign for every nation Success requires creating a unique campaign for each market or Translating Copy Translator must be an effective copywriter Translator must understand the product Translate from learned language into native language Advertisers should provide easy-to-translate copy
    45. 45. Korean Air site in two languages
    46. 46. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul>
    47. 47. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Sign </li></ul><ul><li>Is the fundamental concept in semiotics , the noun counterpart to the verb signify </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing communications in all its various forms uses signs in the creation of messages </li></ul>
    48. 48. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Sign </li></ul><ul><li>Formally, a sign is something physical and perceivable that signifies something (the referent) to somebody (the interpreter) in some context </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke is an index of fire </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>ndex is a sign with a direct existential connection with its object </li></ul>
    49. 49. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Is a sign whose connection with its object is a matter of convention, agreement or rule on meaning </li></ul>
    50. 50. Expressions of culture <ul><li>Body language </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics </li></ul><ul><li>Haptics </li></ul>
    51. 51. Semiotics <ul><li>Semiotics, broadly speaking, is the study of signs and the analysis of meaning-producing events </li></ul><ul><li>The important point of emphasis is that the semiotics perspective sees meaning as a constructive process </li></ul>11/10/09
    52. 52. Gestures Hungary US
    53. 53. Signs and symbols Cambodia
    54. 54. Brands are symbols
    55. 55. Imagery <ul><li>Imagery is the use of pictures, metaphors as a way to convey meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery is based on pictorial conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of style, point of view of picture driven by cultural learning of the maker </li></ul>
    56. 56. Imagery <ul><li>Audiences use their learned pictorial skills in their response </li></ul><ul><li>Different preferences for pictures, words, use of metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>A metaphor often can only be understood in the culture it refers to </li></ul><ul><li>The direction of viewing varies (left to right or right to left) </li></ul>
    57. 57. Metaphors Please open Textbook to read from page 57
    58. 58. Imagery <ul><li>Metaphor represent cultural artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>They often can only be understood in the culture it refers to </li></ul>
    59. 59. Music <ul><li>Music is another aspect of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Friedrich  Nietzsche  once  said , &quot;Without  music  life would be a mistake.&quot;  … &quot; Music , the  Universal language “  </li></ul>
    60. 60. Thinking patterns, intellectual styles, language <ul><li>Digital thinking & decision making, logic </li></ul><ul><li>Argumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Duality: concrete vs abstract, new vs old </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of English language advertising in other countries is not understood </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Thinking patterns, intellectual styles, language <ul><li>Japanese are inclined toward the analog </li></ul><ul><li>They lack the Chinese dynamics of the Yin-Yan </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese are holistic </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese the Kimochi, </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling has to be right logic is cold </li></ul>
    62. 62. Thinking patterns, intellectual styles, language <ul><li>Marieke de Mooij said: </li></ul><ul><li>The Saudis seem to be intuitive in approach and avoid persuasion based primarily on empirical reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>(p, 58) </li></ul>
    63. 63. language <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is described as the mirror of culture and is multidimensional by nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include both verbal and nonverbal communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aids information gathering and evaluation efforts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides access to local society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is important for company communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for interpretation of context. </li></ul></ul>0
    64. 64. Comparing cultures <ul><li>There are two approaches to compare cultures from the Emic or the etic point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Etic = the general </li></ul><ul><li>Emic = the specific </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences within nations are smaller than differences across nations </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. The visible and invisible parts of culture 7-
    66. 66. Layers of culture 7- Individual behaviour/ decision maker Company culture Business/industry culture National culture
    67. 67. Language in global marketing <ul><li>Language is important in information gathering and evaluation efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Language provides access to local society </li></ul><ul><li>Language capability is important to company communications </li></ul><ul><li>Language enables the interpretation of context </li></ul>7-
    68. 68. Acculturation Defined <ul><li>Acculturation - Adjusting and adapting to a specific culture other than one’s own </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the keys to success in international operations </li></ul>0
    69. 69. Cultural Analysis <ul><li>Ethnocentricism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The belief that one’s own culture is superior to others </li></ul></ul>0
    70. 70. Sensuality and touch culture in Saudi Arabian versus European advertising 7-
    71. 71. Three Dimensions of Culture IDEAS McDonalds USA McDonalds Saudi Arabia “ When we go out to eat, which of us wants to go through the cumbersome process of trying to insert the food into our mouths by lifting the veil a crack, smearing ketchup and sauce over our clothes and faces? We appreciate our own eating sections, which most restaurants have, not just McDonald's, because we can be comfortable there without men glimpsing our faces.” -- Susan Aykurt, Woman Living in Saudi Arabia NORMS MATERIAL CULTURE
    72. 72. For discussion (1) <ul><li>Because English is the world language of business is it necessary for UK managers to learn a foreign language? </li></ul>7-
    73. 73. For discussion (2) <ul><li>Do you think that cultural differences between nations are more or less important than cultural variations within nations? Under what circumstances is each important? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify some constraints in marketing to a traditional Muslim society. </li></ul>7-
    74. 74. For discussion (3) <ul><li>What layers of culture have the strongest influence on business people’s behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of this chapter has been the influence of culture on marketing. What is the influence of marketing on culture? </li></ul><ul><li>What role does the self-reference criterion play in international business ethics? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the roles of women in different cultures affect women’s behaviour as consumers and as business people? </li></ul>7-
    75. 75. Assignments <ul><li>Write down your own stereotypes of people from five other countries and how you derived them </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have any stereotypical ideas about advertising from different countries? </li></ul>7- Requires web access
    76. 76. Assignments <ul><li>Think of some words in your own language that you have found difficult to translate to another language and analyze why </li></ul><ul><li>Collect ads from your own country in which you can recognize metaphors typical of your own country. </li></ul>7- Requires web access