Chapter 12 Influence Of Culture On Consumer Behavior

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Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

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Chapter 12 Influence Of Culture On Consumer Behavior

  1. 1. Chapter 12 The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>What is Culture? </li></ul><ul><li>How Culture Is Learned </li></ul><ul><li>The Measurement of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>American Core Values </li></ul>
  3. 3. Culture The sum total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serve to regulate the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.
  4. 4. A Theoretical Model of Cultures’ Influence on Behavior Figure 12-1
  5. 5. Culture Is Learned <ul><li>Enculturation and acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Language and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Enculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The learning of one’s own culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The learning of a new or foreign culture </li></ul></ul>Issues
  6. 6. Discussion Question <ul><li>How do U.S. marketers target consumers who have moved to the U.S. and are new to the U.S. culture? </li></ul><ul><li>How do U.S. marketers target consumers who live outside the U.S. and are adopting parts of the U.S. culture? </li></ul>
  7. 7. This ad would appeal to those from other countries who are now interested in buying a house in the U.S.
  8. 8. The EU has a Web site for new citizens. weblink
  9. 9. The Movement of Cultural Meaning Figure 12.2
  10. 10. Culture Is Learned <ul><li>Enculturation and acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Language and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Without a common language shared meaning could not exist </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers must choose appropriate symbols in advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers can use “known” symbols for associations </li></ul>Issues
  11. 11. This Web site explores animals as symbols for advertising. weblink
  12. 12. This ad uses the symbol of a magnet to emphasize its benefits.
  13. 13. Culture Is Learned <ul><li>Enculturation and acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Language and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of culture </li></ul><ul><li>A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals extend over the human life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers realize that rituals often involve products (artifacts) </li></ul>Issues
  14. 14. Discussion Question <ul><li>What are some rituals (religious, educational, social) that you have experienced? </li></ul><ul><li>What artifacts or products were part of that ritual? </li></ul><ul><li>How did marketers influence the choice of these artifacts? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Culture Is Learned <ul><li>Enculturation and acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Language and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>To be a cultural characteristic, a belief, value, or practice must be shared by a significant portion of the society </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is transferred through family, schools, houses of worship, and media </li></ul>Issues weblink
  16. 16. This ad uses characters well known in the U.S. culture.
  17. 17. Table 12.2 Selected Rituals and Associated Artifacts SELECTED RITUALS TYPICAL ARTIFACTS Wedding White gown (something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue) Birth of child U.S. Savings Bond, silver baby spoon Birthday Card, present, cake with candles 50th Wedding anniversary Catered party, card and gift, display of photos of the couple’s life together Graduation Pen, U.S. Savings Bond, card, wristwatch Valentine’s Day Candy, card, flowers New Year’s Eve Champagne, party, fancy dress Thanksgiving Prepare a turkey meal for family and friends
  18. 18. Table 12.3 Facial Beauty Ritual of a Young TV Advertising Sales Representative <ul><li>1. I pull my hair back with a headband. </li></ul><ul><li>2. I take all of my makeup off with L’Oreal eye makeup remover. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Next, I use a Q-tip with some moisturizer around my eyes to make sure all eye makeup is removed. </li></ul><ul><li>4. I wash my face with Noxzema facial wash. </li></ul><ul><li>I apply Clinique Dramatically Different Lotion to my face, neck, and throat. </li></ul><ul><li>If I have a blemish, I apply Clearasil Treatment to the area to dry it out. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Twice weekly (or as necessary) I use Aapri Facial Scrub to remove dry and dead skin. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Once a week I apply Clinique Clarifying Lotion 2 with a cotton ball to my face and throat to remove deep-down dirt and oils. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Once every three months I get a professional salon facial to deep-clean my pores. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Measurement of Culture <ul><li>Content Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>Value Measurement Instruments </li></ul>
  20. 20. Content Analysis A method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial communication. The method is frequently used to determine prevailing social values of a society.
  21. 21. Field Observation A cultural measurement technique that takes place within a natural environment that focuses on observing behavior (sometimes without the subjects’ awareness).
  22. 22. Characteristics of Field Observation <ul><li>Takes place within a natural environment </li></ul><ul><li>Performed sometimes without the subject’s awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on observation of behavior </li></ul>
  23. 23. Participant-Observers Researchers who participate in the environment that they are studying without notifying those who are being observed.
  24. 24. Value Measurement Survey Instruments <ul><li>Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A self-administered inventory consisting of eighteen “terminal” values (i.e., personal goals) and eighteen “instrumental” values (i.e., ways of reaching personal goals) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List of Values (LOV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A value measurement instrument that asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine-value list that is based on the terminal values of the Rokeach Value Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values and Lifestyles (VALS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A value measurement based on two categories: self-definition and resources </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Table 12.5 Excerpt from the Rokeach Value Survey TERMINAL VALUES INSTRMENTAL VALUES A comfortable life Ambitious An exciting life Broad-minded A world at peace Capable Equality Cheerful Freedom Clean Happiness Courageous National security Forgiving Pleasure Helpful Salvation Honest Social recognition Imaginative True friendship Independent Wisdom Intellectual
  26. 26. This ad references a terminal value.
  27. 27. American Core Values <ul><li>Achievement and success </li></ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency and practicality </li></ul><ul><li>Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Material comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>External conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Youthfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Fitness and health </li></ul>
  28. 28. Discussion Question <ul><li>Have you observed changes in any of the core values over the past 4 years? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did those changes occur? </li></ul><ul><li>How have they affected marketers? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Criteria for Value Selection <ul><li>The value must be pervasive. </li></ul><ul><li>The value must be enduring. </li></ul><ul><li>The value must be consumer-related. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Toward a Shopping Culture <ul><li>Is shopping what we do to create value in our lives? </li></ul><ul><li>The younger generation is shopping more </li></ul><ul><li>This has an effect on credit card debt </li></ul>

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