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I B A H R I N E C H A P T E R 2


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I B A H R I N E C H A P T E R 2

  2. 2. 2-2<br />Learning Objectives <br />The basics of Internet operations<br />To gain a perspective on how and why the Internet operates so smoothly<br />To identify World Wide Web attributes<br />
  3. 3. 2-3<br />Cisco and the Internet’s Infrastructure<br />What is Cisco’s contribution to the Internet?<br />
  4. 4. 2-4<br />Cisco and the Internet’s Infrastructure<br />What is Cisco’s contribution to the Internet?<br />Cisco Systems is the undisputed worldwide leader in the manufacture and sale of internet data-networking equipment and software<br />A good place to begin learning how the Internet works is with the role played by Cisco’s many internet related products:<br />Routers<br />Switches<br />Remote<br />Access Servers <br />Security Systems<br />
  5. 5. 2-5<br />How The Internet Works<br />Routers<br />Are sophisticated computers and routing protocols embedded in the software that runs them <br />They are also called the Internet’s traffic cops<br />
  6. 6. 2-6<br />How The Internet Works<br />Servers <br />Servers are computers and software that runs them<br />They serve data, by storing files that other computers can access<br />
  7. 7. 2-7<br />How The Internet Works<br />Software<br />is a set of programs that can run one, many or millions of computers<br />They create files and documents <br />
  8. 8. 2-8<br />How The Internet Works<br />Internet services <br />Email<br />FTP File Transfer Protocol: A set of message formats or rules that enable a user to transfer files to and from another computer over a TCP/IP network<br />
  9. 9. 2-9<br />How The Internet Works<br />The information superhighway or infobahn was a popular term used through the 1990s to refer to digital communication systems and the internet telecommunications network<br />Al Gore, United States Senator and later Vice-President, strongly influenced the term<br />
  10. 10. 2-10<br />How The Internet Works<br />Barriers <br />Affordability<br />Lack of open access<br />Lack of freedom of speech<br />Undercapacity<br />Complexity<br />Incompatible laws<br />Lack of privacy<br />Security<br />Irresponsible use<br />Can everyone use the Internet?<br />Should marketers want everyone online?<br />How vulnerable is the Internet?<br />
  11. 11. 2-11<br />Internet Management<br />Who manages the Internet<br />Emarketing occurs on a global electronic network shared by millions of computers<br />Given its size, it would be easy to assume that a powerful central international management system maintains the stability of the matrix and get all members to cooperate and coordinate their efforts<br />
  12. 12. 2-12<br />Internet Management<br />Instead, the Internet management is highly fluid, with changing contributors and highly distributed, with shifting power centers<br />The U.S. government did not disappear from internet management<br />It takes part in international initiatives that deal with such cross-border internet issues as jurisdiction, privacy and cyper-terrorism<br />Jurisdiction<br />It oversee issues related to U.S. internet operation, including spam, gambling and online pornography <br />
  13. 13. 2-13<br />Internet Management<br />Today, the Internet is run by no single entity, yet it is not unmanaged chaos online<br />Key U.S. government agencies continue to regulate U.S. online activities<br />The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC)<br />The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC)<br />
  14. 14. 2-14<br />Internet Management<br />Voluntary professional organizations<br />A number of voluntary professional committees run the technical side of the Internet<br />Much of the work is coordinated by the Internet Society (ISOC)<br />The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)<br />Is an industry-supported organizations that develops standards for the WEB<br />It is dedicated to maintaining the web interoperability and growth<br />
  15. 15. 2-15<br />Internet Management<br />The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)<br />It was created by the U.S. government<br />It is a nonprofit corporation responsible for allocating IP addresses and managing the domain name system<br />ICANN accredits companies that register domain names for business and organizations<br />
  16. 16. 2-16<br />Internet Management<br />Self-regulation<br />Another mechanism for managing the Internet activities is self-regulation, which frequently is undertaken to forestall the need for government regulation<br />Another form of internet self-regulation is industry-specific <br />
  17. 17. 2-17<br />Internet Management<br />Like every system operating on the Internet matrix, the Web adheres to the TCP/IP protocol<br />It also requires a unique protocol, HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), for exchanging HTML files, including webpages, images, text, sound, video and graphics<br /><ul><li>It </li></li></ul><li>2-18<br />Internet Management<br />Web pages are distinguished by <br /><ul><li>Adjustable size (larger or smaller to fit a computer screen)
  18. 18. Scroll pages
  19. 19. Link within pages
  20. 20. Link to other pages, sites
  21. 21. Multipage displays
  22. 22. Arrangement of text
  23. 23. Graphics
  24. 24. Design (bright, colorful, interesting and highly creative)
  25. 25. Multimedia elements
  26. 26. Hypertext links
  27. 27. It </li></li></ul><li>2-19<br />How The Web Works<br />The Web facilitates marketing exchanges through links, real time interactivity, 24/7/365 access, personalization, customization, and relationships<br />Web pages and sites create marketing opportunities<br />Web addresses are marketing tools<br />URLs, domains, and names<br />Portals <br />The Web brings marketing offers directly and personally to target markets<br />
  28. 28. 2-20<br />How The Web Works<br />Hyperlinks are hypertext connections<br />Links help make the Web interactive and useful<br />A link is a connection from a word, image or object to another area within a page<br />
  29. 29. 2-21<br />How The Web Works<br />Some sites are so complicated and poorly organized that it takes too long for visitors to drill down to a destination page<br />Content on some web pages is hard to understand or is not informative <br />
  30. 30. 2-22<br />How The Web Works<br />Web pages and sites create marketing opportunities<br />Web addresses are marketing tools for building awareness and directing visitors to a site <br />All locations on the Internet and web have an address<br />Websites are accessed using the Internet protocol (IP) and a Unique Resource Locator (URL)<br />
  31. 31. 2-23<br />How The Web Works<br />Domains and names were introduced to simplify internet addressing by allowing the substitution of words for numbers <br />The Domain Name System (DNS) established a hierarchical order for top level and secondary-level domains<br />Top level names = edu. Com, net, gov and the two digit Country Codes (CC)<br />Secondary level names = second level domain appear directly before the Country Code<br /><br />
  32. 32. 2-24<br />How The Web Works<br />In 2002, seven names were added:<br />Aero (air transport industry)<br />Biz. (business)<br />Coop (Cooperation)<br />Info (unrestricted use)<br />Museum (Museums)<br />Name (individual) <br />Pro (lawyers and other professions)<br />
  33. 33. 2-25<br />How The Web Works<br />The net regulator ICANN has &quot;internationalised domain names&quot; in non-Latin characters<br /> Egypt and Saudi Arabia have announced their intentions to apply for the first Arabic domains<br />Egypt new domain name would be &quot;.masr&quot; written in the Arabic alphabet<br />
  34. 34. 2-26<br />How The Web Works<br />International companies are advised to register their domain names in all the countries where they operate and in the languages of the customers in their target market<br />Domain names are valuable property and care should go into their construction and protection <br />
  35. 35. 2-27<br />How The Web Works<br />For domain names to have a marketing value<br />They must be carefully worded, descriptive, clear, memorable and legally protected <br />The longer the name, the less likely it is to be remembered <br />Short names that evoke the image of he site are more engaging<br />Before registering, the name should be checked to see weather it is already trademark protected<br />
  36. 36. 2-28<br />How The Web Works<br />Cypersquatter someone who registers famous names in “bad faith” to sell for profits or otherwise exploit<br />Famous names are trademark <br />The U.S. Anticypersquatting Consumer Protection Act of 1999 criminalizes the unauthorized use of trade-mark protected names in Internet domain addresses<br />It remains to be seen how effective this will be in stopping worldwide names market<br />
  37. 37. 2-29<br />How The Web Works<br />Portals <br />
  38. 38. The State of Being Digital <br />Something is digital when all of its properties and information are stored as a string of zeroes and ones<br />Those zeroes and ones are called bits<br />Everything on the Internet is digital<br />The falling cost of digital technology is one of the most powerful forces in the modern economy<br />
  39. 39. Being Digital <br />NOCOLAS NEGROPENTE<br />
  40. 40. Understanding Moore’s Law <br /> Intel co-founder Gordon Moore observed that each generation of computer memory chips – released about every 18 months – could pack the same technology into half the space<br />Source: AP/World Wide Photos<br />
  41. 41. Understanding Moore’s Law<br />Moore’s Law applies broadly to computing and technology costs<br />Computer speed since the 1970s has increased roughly 75 billion times<br />The cost of technology and storage, meanwhile, has dropped sharply<br />
  42. 42. Putting Moore’s Law to Work<br />Sun Microsystems as early as 1995 saved hundreds of thousands of dollars by moving to online customer support<br />Online software distribution saved Sun an estimated $1.5 million per quarter compared to traditional distribution<br />
  43. 43. Digital Environments<br />Technology allows users to create virtual spaces to display information, tell stories, educate or amuse<br />For marketers, new ways to reach consumers and promote a product<br />
  44. 44. Key Features of Digital Environments<br />Procedural: Computers must be taught what to do in a digital environment<br />
  45. 45. Key Features of Digital Environments<br />Participatory: Effectiveness depends on ease of consumer use and interactive potential<br />
  46. 46. Key Features of Digital Environments<br />Encyclopedic: Low cost allows almost endless storage capacity<br />
  47. 47. Digital Convergence<br />Cheap and powerful digital technology has contributed to the merging of industries, technology and content<br />
  48. 48. Digital Convergence<br />One crucial area: convergence of computing, communications and media content<br />
  49. 49. Digital Convergence<br />When barriers between industries fall, marketers have greater flexibility to choose the best medium for the pitch<br />
  50. 50. &lt;/END&gt;<br />