I B A H R I N E 7 T H E I N T E R N E T


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I B A H R I N E 7 T H E I N T E R N E T

  2. 2. <ul><li>[1] What is the difference between the Internet and the Web? </li></ul><ul><li>[2] History of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>[3] Theories of Information Society </li></ul><ul><li>[3.1] Theories of Internet and Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[3.1.1] The Neofuturists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[3.1.2] The Dystopians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[3.1.3] The Technorealists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[4] Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[4.1] Google Society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[5] Social Media </li></ul>
  3. 3. From ARPANET to Internet (1 of 2) <ul><li>Cold War idea: keep vital computer networks connected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information bundled in Internet Protocol packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ARPANET (Advanced Research projects Agency Network) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1980s NSF (National Science Foundation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More widespread network </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. THE INTERNET <ul><li>The Internet is a network of computer networks </li></ul><ul><li>No one owns or run the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>There is no “Internet company” </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Internet <ul><li>Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (the Web) interchangeably, </li></ul><ul><li>But in fact the two terms are not synonymous </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet and the Web are two separate but related things </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols </li></ul>
  6. 6. World Wide Web <ul><li>The World Wide Web , or simply Web , is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data </li></ul><ul><li>The Web also utilizes browsers such as Netscape, Explorer and Firefox to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlins </li></ul><ul><li>Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video </li></ul>
  7. 7. History <ul><li>In August 1991, Sir Tim Berners-Lee created the first website </li></ul><ul><li>Founded World Wide Web Consortium at MIT in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Named by Time magazine as one of the top 20 thinkers of the 20th century </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Structure of the Theoretical Debate on Politics and the Internet
  9. 9. International Communication Regime <ul><li>International Telecommunication Union ITU </li></ul><ul><li>ICANN </li></ul>
  10. 10. International Telecommunication Union ITU
  11. 11. ICANN <ul><li>ICANN is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet's system of unique identifiers </li></ul><ul><li>These include domain names (like .org, .museum and country codes like .UK), as well as the addresses used in a variety of Internet protocols </li></ul><ul><li>ICANN's global stakeholders meet regularly to develop policies that ensure the Internet's ongoing security and stability </li></ul>
  12. 12. Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
  13. 13. History of the phrase “Web 2.0 <ul><li>“ Web 2.0 ” has become a catch-all buzzword that people use to describe a wide range of online activities and applications </li></ul><ul><li>When the term emerged in 2004 (coined by Dale Dougherty and popularized by O’Reilly Media and MediaLive International) </li></ul><ul><li>O’Reilly and others have smartly outlined some of the defining characteristics of Web 2.0 applications —utilizing collective intelligence, providing network-enabled interactive services, giving users control over their own data—these traits do not always map neatly on to the technologies held up as examples </li></ul><ul><li>Google demonstrates many Web 2.0 sensibilities </li></ul>
  14. 14. History of the phrase “Web 2.0 <ul><li>New, interactive ways of using the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-generation web services, reflecting sharing and collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social networking sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User-generated sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group-effort sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0 was about consuming content; Web 2.0 is about generating and sharing content </li></ul><ul><li>To entrepreneurs, Web 2.0 = site representing little risk and huge rewards potential </li></ul>
  15. 15. Web 1.0 vs. Web 2.0
  16. 16. Google demonstrates many Web 2.0 sensibilities Larry Page President, Products Sergey Brin President, Technology
  17. 17. Google Society or Googlezation of Society
  18. 18. Google Society or Googlezation of Society
  19. 19. Google Society <ul><li>The googlization of society will make everyone famous for 10 minutes and for 10 people’ </li></ul>
  20. 20. Web 2.0 Meme Map
  21. 21. Examples of Social Media Services
  22. 22. A wiki <ul><li>Wiki Wiki sign at Honolulu International Airport </li></ul>
  23. 23. A wiki <ul><li>[Definition] </li></ul><ul><li>A wiki is a type of website that allows the visitors themselves to easily add, remove, and otherwise edit and change some available content, sometimes without the need for registration </li></ul><ul><li>This ease of interaction and operation makes a wiki an effective tool for collaborative authoring </li></ul><ul><li>The term wiki also can refer to the collaborative software itself </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki engine that facilitates the operation of such a website, or to certain specific wiki sites, including the computer science site </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  24. 24. Morocco on Wikipedia - 2006
  25. 25. iPod 2001
  26. 26. iPod 2001 <ul><li>The iPod is currently the world's best-selling digital audio player and its worldwide mainstream adoption makes it one of the most popular consumer brands </li></ul>
  27. 27. Podcast
  28. 28. “ Podcasting will change radio, not kill it” <ul><li>[Definition] </li></ul><ul><li>A podcast is a multimedia file distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers </li></ul><ul><li>Originally, the term meant a portmanteau of &quot;broadcasting&quot; and “iPod“ (Ben Hammersley, The Guardian, 2004) </li></ul>
  29. 29. “ Podcasting will change radio, not kill it” <ul><li>The “pod” comes from Apple's iPod, a fashionable portable music player </li></ul><ul><li>The “casting” comes from broadcasting, which means sending a radio signal to an entire population in a particular geographic area at a particular time </li></ul><ul><li>The podcaster is the person who hosts or authors of a podcast </li></ul><ul><li>The editors of the New Oxford American Dictionary declared &quot;podcasting&quot; the 2005 word of the year </li></ul>
  30. 30. Primary Characteristics of a Blog <ul><li>The word “blog” appears to date back to 1997, when one of the few practitioners at the time, Jorn Barger, called his website a “weblog” </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999, another user, Peter Merholz, playfully broke the word into “we blog”, and somehow the new term—blog—stuck as both a verb and a noun </li></ul><ul><li>Technically, Weblogs, or &quot;blogs,&quot; are frequently updated webpages with a series of archived posts or entries (old content remains accessible), typically in a reverse-chronological journaling (format) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Blogs <ul><li>Blogs (weblogs) allow people to produce their own journals about whatever they want. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A web 2.0 application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost anyone can become a mass communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging took off when software made it easy to create and post blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Blogosphere” doubles every six months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs have influenced traditional media </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Primary Characteristics of a Blog <ul><li>Most blogs provide hypertext; links to related news articles, documents, blog entries within each entry (attribution) </li></ul><ul><li>Many blogs allow for audience comments and have RSS or XML feed (ease of syndication) </li></ul><ul><li>Blog posts are primarily textual, but they may also contain pictures (“photoblogs”) and or other multimedia content such as video (“vlogs”) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Creating a Blog _Smart Mobs
  34. 34. Technorati Who is saying what. Right now <ul><li>Each post is stored on its own distinct archive page, the so-called “permalink”, where it can always be found </li></ul><ul><li>On average, Technorati tracks some 50,000 new posts an hour </li></ul>
  35. 35. Technorati Who is saying what. Right now
  36. 36. Technorati Search for Blogging
  37. 37. Technorati Search for Blogging <ul><li>“ The people formerly known as your audience, or the people formerly known as consumers, are now participants in the process of building your brand.” </li></ul>David Sifry , Founder and CEO, Technorati
  38. 38. Creative Commons
  39. 39. Open Source and Free Culture
  40. 40. YouTube 2005 <ul><li>YouTube is a popular free video sharing web site which lets users upload, view, and share video clips </li></ul><ul><li>In 13 November 2006, Google, Inc., bought for $1.65 billion </li></ul>
  41. 41. YouTube_Broadcast Yourself
  42. 42. MP3 Players
  43. 43. Flick r
  44. 44. Flick r : <ul><li>[Definition] </li></ul><ul><li>Flikr is a photo sharing website and web services suite, </li></ul><ul><li>And an online community platform </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Year of MySpace: <ul><li>MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos </li></ul><ul><li>MySpace also has an internal search engine and an internal e-mail system </li></ul><ul><li>More than 100 million accounts created </li></ul><ul><li>Third most popular site in the U.S. (after Yahoo and Google) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, a site was unleashed on the net that would change everything; a site so popular and influential it has launched the careers of pop stars and was purchased by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation for $580m (£310m) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Firefox 2
  47. 47. The Indymedia Network <ul><li>Indymedia is both a global online network (www.indymedia.org) and over 140 local, autonomous Indymedia organisations around the world offering ‘grassroots, non-corporate coverage’ of major protests and issues relevant to the anti-capitalist, peace and social justice movements </li></ul><ul><li>Local Indymedia centres can be found across Europe, including the UK, as well as Israel, Palestine, South Africa, Indonesia, Nigeria, Australia, Russia, Brazil, Cyprus, Croatia, India and Colombia </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Indymedia Network <ul><li>Over one third of the IMCs (Independent Media Centres) are located in the U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Born out of the need to provide a space for alternative voices and independent journalists during the massive anti-WTO demonstrations in 1999 in Seattle, Indymedia has continued to grow exponentially since, both in size and scope </li></ul><ul><li>This means that anyone can post a print article, photo, video or audio piece directly onto the website under the ‘newswire’ section </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Indymedia Network
  50. 50. Wired magazine <ul><ul><li>“ When the tools are spread ubiquitously, talent will rise out, luck will rise out, and being in the right place at the right time will rise out, and suddenly you will see the content just emerging whether it meant to or not.” </li></ul></ul>Chris Anderson, Editor-in-Chief of Wired
  51. 51. Social Media <ul><li>[Definition] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media are online tools and platforms and include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videoblogging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photoblogging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing lists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulletin boards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Message boards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have significantly limited the traditional media </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Participatory Journalism <ul><li>Participatory journalism is a concept that embraces an expanded two-way communication between established media and readers, allowing readers to interact with journalists and news organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s practice of blogging embodies these concepts of journalism </li></ul><ul><li>It is the latest in a series of technologies that have changed the face of both mass communication and social networks </li></ul>
  53. 53. social media <ul><li>Advocates of social media will point out that while there are applications such as wikis and social bookmarking that embody this 'unlimited aggregation' approach </li></ul><ul><li>The ecology of social media is balanced by the presence of other applications such as blogs and social networking where individuality and cooperation are alive and well </li></ul><ul><li>By using a mix of social media, communities can benefit both from the wisdom of crowds and the wisdom of individuals </li></ul>
  54. 55. A New Model for News <ul><li>The Internet supplements surveillance function of news media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any blogger can become a reporter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Top-down” model of news has shifted: news can start at source and go “sideways” to anyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs provide checks and balances for traditional media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Internet also expands the media’s interpretation function </li></ul>
  55. 56. Citizens' media <ul><li>Citizens' media—also called alternative media or radical media—are instances where communication technologies are used by </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens' groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collectives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grassroots organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social movements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>to meet their information, communication, expression, and networking needs </li></ul>
  56. 57. Readers or Aggregators
  57. 58. Mozilla Firefox <ul><li>This icon was introduced by Mozilla Firefox to </li></ul><ul><li>indicate a web feed was present on a webpage </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Internet Explorer and Opera have also adopted the icon </li></ul>
  58. 59. Mobile Gadgets and Media
  59. 60. Going Mobile: The Wireless Web Mobile Gadgets and Media <ul><li>Wireless Internet access will increase as wireless technology becomes more common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop computers, cell phones, PDAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiFi: Wireless Fidelity </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Information Overload <ul><li>The Internet is an unparalleled information retrieval source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We might retrieve so much information on a subject that we are overwhelmed rather than helped </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. From ARPANET to Internet (2 of 2) <ul><li>1990s key developments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Wide Web and hypertext </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mid-2000s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet more popular than ever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005: more than 400 million host computers connected to web </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. STRUCTURE AND FEATURES OF THE INTERNET <ul><li>TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows computers to talk with other computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISPs (Internet Service Providers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OSPs (Online Service Providers) </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. E-Mail <ul><li>Electronic mail (e-mail) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast, cheap, reliable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can send text, graphics, and much more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not suited for all message content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as private as letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time loss </li></ul></ul>
  64. 65. Newsgroups <ul><li>Internet equivalent of bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on themes, or specialized topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People read and post messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 40,000 newsgroups </li></ul></ul>
  65. 66. World Wide Web <ul><li>WWW: network of varied information sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext allows nonlinear linkages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The web is part of the Internet (terms not synonymous) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW includes Web sites, web pages, home pages, portals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>URL: Uniform resource locator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.uga.edu (University of Georgia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3.3 billion pages by 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% in English, German, French, Japanese </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. Online Service Providers <ul><li>OSPs key during formative years of Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide exclusive information and entertainment plus access to Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AOL (America Online) was biggest OSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At its peak, AOL had 29 million subscribers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now a free service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSN (Microsoft Network) 2 nd largest OSP </li></ul></ul>
  67. 68. THE EVOLVING INTERNET <ul><li>Predictions are risky </li></ul><ul><li>Most experts agree on a few trends likely to change the web </li></ul>
  68. 69. Broadband <ul><li>Internet transmission channel fast enough for the large information transfers required by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video-on-demand, interactive TV, streaming video, downloadable movies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadband access is by satellite modem, cable modem, DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) </li></ul><ul><li>2007: 50% of US homes have broadband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US lags behind 24 other countries </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. Monetizing the Web <ul><li>Monetizing: Converting something to money </li></ul><ul><li>Investors and many web site operators want to convert visitors into monetary reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different web 2.0 sites approach monetizing differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fees for extra services, display advertising, sponsored links, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 71. ECONOMICS <ul><li>We will look at the impact of the Internet on the national economy, e-commerce, and then the finances of individual web sites </li></ul>
  71. 72. The Internet and the National Economy <ul><li>About 40% of publicly-traded Internet companies profitable (E-Bay, Expedia, Yahoo) </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional companies use Internet more effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional stores use Internet as additional revenue stream </li></ul><ul><li>Internet can be an effective business tool </li></ul>
  72. 73. E-Commerce <ul><li>Selling goods and services online </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional consumer commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B2B (business-to-business), or E-business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumer e-commerce $240 billion worldwide by 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>B2B e-commerce $2 trillion worldwide by 2006 </li></ul>
  73. 74. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>The social implications of the Internet are constantly changing, but some are clear: </li></ul>
  74. 75. Lack of Gatekeepers <ul><li>Gatekeepers serve as evaluators of information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without gatekeepers, the Internet can be overwhelmed with unwanted messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We must evaluate the credibility of online information ourselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No gatekeepers = no censorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can provide additional information, but may be partisan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  75. 76. THE FUTURE: THE EVERNET <ul><li>The Evernet is the successor to the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the Supranet or Internet II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence of wireless, broadband, other devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will result in being continuously connected to the Internet, anywhere, with any information device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staggering implications </li></ul>