Most fundamental characteristicsof culture:1. Culture is always a product of human behavior2. It is always transmitted through learning3. It always gratifies human needs4. It always tends toward integrating a society.
It is shared by and is transmitted to and among the members of a social group.. Generally , man transmits culture by means of ideas The acquired learning of culture is passed on to succeeding generations primarily through language, but other symbolic means of communications are utilized
It has to be understood that not all things shared generally by a population are cultural. Culture is not instinctive It is acquired by each person through the senses and from experiences. Each individual must learn through himself. No one is born equipped with a particular language, or knowledge of religious beliefs
An individual is likely to utilize habitually a cultural technique which gratifies him in some way. The patterns of culture continues to persist if they continue to satisfy man’s need Biological needs are components of culture
Means that the elements or traits that makes up that culture are not just a random assortment of customs but are mostly adjusted to or consistent with one another. A culture may be integrated for psychological reasons. The traits of culture - attitude, values, ideals, and rules for behavior – are stored after all, in the brains of individuals.
Principal ways in which thisprocess of culture adaptationoccurs Parallelism – independent development of a culture characteristics in two widely separated cultures Diffusion – much more common process of patterns and traits passing back and forth from one culture to another
Fission – a process that can be traced historically when a long established society breaks up into two or more independent units Convergence – is the fusion of two or more cultures into a new one which is somewhat different from its predecessors.
Culture as a category Culture as a tool in prediction
More specific functions ofculture: Culture serve as “trademark” or special feature that distinguishes one society from another. Culture brings together, contains, and interprets the values of a society in a more or less systematic manner.
Culture provides one of the most important bases for social solidarity Culture provides a blue-print of, as well as the materials for social structure. The culture of any society is the dominant factor in establishing and molding the social personality The culture of a society provides behavioral patterns