Chapter  7 <ul><li>Culture and Communication </li></ul>
Culture and advertising style <ul><li>Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects values and motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Advertising Styles A ustria D enmark G ermany F inland S weden U SA N orway S ingapore C hina France A rgentina I taly A r...
The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>Advertising styles vary with purpose of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Persu...
The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>The desire is to establish trusting, in-group-like relationships with suppl...
The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>In a typical Japanese television commercial, the first identification of a ...
The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures, using a hard sell or directly addressing consum...
The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>People of high-context cultures used symbols, signs and indirect communicat...
Informational Versus Emotional <ul><li>Rational – emotional dichotomy  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking vs feeling </li></ul...
Measuring Advertising: Persuasion or Likeability <ul><li>Traditional measures of advertising effectiveness are based on pe...
Measuring Advertising: Persuasion or Likeability <ul><li>Next to persuasion, likeability has become a  measure to predict ...
How Advertising works <ul><li>The underlying assumption of how advertising works is that advertising takes people from one...
Advertising effect sequences <ul><li>“ learn-feel-do” </li></ul><ul><li>“ feel-learn-do” </li></ul><ul><li>“ do-learn-feel...
The Logic of advertising in Western societies How you or your product is different Why your product is best, using clearly...
The Logic of advertising in Japan Make friends with the target audience  Prove that you understand their feelings Show tha...
Appreciation of advertising <ul><li>Economic effects appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation related to media usage </l...
How Advertising works <ul><li>Elaboration likelihood model is one of the most advanced U.S. models of how advertising work...
How Advertising works <ul><li>In the theory, the peripheral route generally includes visual cues like the package, picture...
VISUALS in Advertising <ul><li>The underlying assumption that consumers from all around the world can READ a picture where...
VISUALS in Advertising <ul><li>Benetton’s ad showing a black women nursing a white baby won awards for its message of unit...
Web Site Design <ul><li>Cultural adaptation enhances ease of use and favorable attitudes toward web site </li></ul><ul><li...
Web Site Design <ul><li>Japanese websites exhibit clear gender roles and are rich in colors and aesthetics with pictures o...
Web Site Design <ul><li>In high-context cultures where people are more motivated by social interaction, online marketers s...
Web Site Design <ul><li>Web design includes creating ads that run on the web as well as the Web site itself </li></ul><ul>...
Web Site Design <ul><li>The graphics should be simple  </li></ul><ul><li>Use one or two typefaces and avoiding ALL CAPs an...
Web Site Design <ul><li>All the design elements : type and graphic should be big enough to see on the smallest screen </li...
Web Site Design <ul><li>Users who visit a site regularly should be able to customize the site to fit their own interests a...
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Ibahrine Chapter 7 Culture Communica Tl On

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Ibahrine Chapter 7 Culture Communica Tl On

  1. 1. Chapter 7 <ul><li>Culture and Communication </li></ul>
  2. 2. Culture and advertising style <ul><li>Appeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects values and motivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product values or added values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal vs visual, direct vs indirect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic advertising form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture style, demonstration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D rama , indirect approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure e ntertainment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Execution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection of people’s lives </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Advertising Styles A ustria D enmark G ermany F inland S weden U SA N orway S ingapore C hina France A rgentina I taly A rab world B razil S pain I ndia N etherlands Indirect & Implicit Direct & Explicit Aesthetics E ntertainment Emotions Structure Symbolism PDI- PDI+ UAI- UAI+ IDV Personal IDV IDV/COL COL Drama Metaphors Play with words UK Humor Japan
  4. 4. The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>Advertising styles vary with purpose of advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion or trust </li></ul><ul><li>Direct or indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing theory of how people acquire information influences advertising style and effectiveness measurement </li></ul><ul><li>In individualistic culture, advertising must persuade </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivist culture, the purpose of advertising is to build relationships and trust between seller and buyer </li></ul>
  5. 5. The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>The desire is to establish trusting, in-group-like relationships with suppliers and their products is reflected in the tendency of Japanese advertising to focus on inducing positive feelings rather than on providing information </li></ul>
  6. 6. The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>In a typical Japanese television commercial, the first identification of a brand, company name, or product occurs later than in a typical U.S. television commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese advertisers tend to take more of a commercial’s time to develop trust, understanding and dependency </li></ul>
  7. 7. The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>In collectivistic cultures, using a hard sell or directly addressing consumers turns them off instead of persuading them </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising must build trust and advertising must be liked </li></ul>
  8. 8. The purpose of marketing communication <ul><li>People of high-context cultures used symbols, signs and indirect communication will process information in a different way than people of low-context cultures, who are used to explanations, persuasive copy and rhetoric </li></ul>
  9. 9. Informational Versus Emotional <ul><li>Rational – emotional dichotomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking vs feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational/ informational/ factual/ = </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional/Transformational=evaluative= </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Measuring Advertising: Persuasion or Likeability <ul><li>Traditional measures of advertising effectiveness are based on persuasiveness of an advertisement: </li></ul><ul><li>Measures include </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude toward the advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Brand attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase intention </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and market performance </li></ul>
  11. 11. Measuring Advertising: Persuasion or Likeability <ul><li>Next to persuasion, likeability has become a measure to predict sales </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects that contribute to the likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful: believable, true-to-life </li></ul><ul><li>Does not rub the wrong way </li></ul><ul><li>Warm (gentle, sensitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Pleases the mind (aesthetic) </li></ul>
  12. 12. How Advertising works <ul><li>The underlying assumption of how advertising works is that advertising takes people from one stage to another </li></ul>
  13. 13. Advertising effect sequences <ul><li>“ learn-feel-do” </li></ul><ul><li>“ feel-learn-do” </li></ul><ul><li>“ do-learn-feel” </li></ul><ul><li>“ do-feel-learn” </li></ul><ul><li>“ feel-do-learn” </li></ul>High-involvement Low involvement Japanese model trust, relationship comes first Hierarchy of effects models based on AIDA, linear sales process model Attention, Interest, Desire, Action
  14. 14. The Logic of advertising in Western societies How you or your product is different Why your product is best, using clearly stated information and benefits Consumers then will want to buy, because they have a clear reason or justification for the purchase If they are satisfied, consumers will like and trust the company and the product and make repeat purchase
  15. 15. The Logic of advertising in Japan Make friends with the target audience Prove that you understand their feelings Show that you are nice Consumers will then want to buy because they trust you and feel familiar with you (the brand and company) After the purchase, consumers find out if the product is good or what the benefits
  16. 16. Appreciation of advertising <ul><li>Economic effects appreciated </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciation related to media usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy TV viewing = positive attitude to adv on TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imported advertising in small markets that doesn’t fit the culture irritates </li></ul><ul><li>Developing markets like advertising better </li></ul><ul><li>More advertising liking in collectivistic cultures </li></ul>
  17. 17. How Advertising works <ul><li>Elaboration likelihood model is one of the most advanced U.S. models of how advertising works </li></ul><ul><li>It states that persuasion follows a central route, peripheral route or both </li></ul><ul><li>Within the central route, a person engages in thoughtful consideration (elaboration) of the issue-relevant information (argument) within a message </li></ul><ul><li>So actively thinking about the arguments in the message is the central route </li></ul><ul><li>When a person is not motivated to think about the argument, the peripheral route is followed </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Advertising works <ul><li>In the theory, the peripheral route generally includes visual cues like the package, pictures or the context of message </li></ul><ul><li>In collectivistic cultures, where people process advertising holistically and pictures provide the context, the theory may not apply </li></ul>
  19. 19. VISUALS in Advertising <ul><li>The underlying assumption that consumers from all around the world can READ a picture whereas the copy of the advertisement often needs to be translated </li></ul><ul><li>These highly standardized visual campaign do not always convey a uniform meaning among audiences </li></ul>
  20. 20. VISUALS in Advertising <ul><li>Benetton’s ad showing a black women nursing a white baby won awards for its message of unity and equality in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The ad stirred up controversy in the United States, because many believed it depicted a black nanny in the subordinate role as slave </li></ul>
  21. 21. Web Site Design <ul><li>Cultural adaptation enhances ease of use and favorable attitudes toward web site </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites reflect values of country of origin </li></ul><ul><li>High-context cultures more animation and moving people </li></ul><ul><li>Differences East-West re interactive communication styles </li></ul>
  22. 22. Web Site Design <ul><li>Japanese websites exhibit clear gender roles and are rich in colors and aesthetics with pictures of butterflies, cherry blossoms or other nature scenes </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Websites are direct, text-heavy, informative, logical, success-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>High-context cultures use more animation and images of moving people than low-context cultures and images promote values characteristic of collective culture </li></ul>
  23. 23. Web Site Design <ul><li>In high-context cultures where people are more motivated by social interaction, online marketers should generate more consumer interaction such as discussion forums and chat rooms </li></ul><ul><li>In low-context cultures where people search for information, online marketers should emphasize information features such as keyword search and virtual product display </li></ul>
  24. 24. Web Site Design <ul><li>Web design includes creating ads that run on the web as well as the Web site itself </li></ul><ul><li>Banner ads are designed more like outdoor boards than conventional print ads because their small space puts intense requirements on the designer to make the ad communicate quickly and yet attract attention and curiosity to elicit a click-through response </li></ul>
  25. 25. Web Site Design <ul><li>The graphics should be simple </li></ul><ul><li>Use one or two typefaces and avoiding ALL CAPs and letter spacing that distorts the words </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing the information is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of legibility, black type on a high-contrast background usually is the best </li></ul>
  26. 26. Web Site Design <ul><li>All the design elements : type and graphic should be big enough to see on the smallest screen </li></ul><ul><li>Clear navigation: users should be able to move through the site easily </li></ul><ul><li>Eye tracking research found out that if the navigation is cluttered or unclear, viewers will give up and move onto some other sites </li></ul>
  27. 27. Web Site Design <ul><li>Users who visit a site regularly should be able to customize the site to fit their own interests and navigation patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Web video is becoming a new business opportunity for businesses that want to use videos to display their products </li></ul>

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