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Chapter Sixteen
Culture and cross-cultural
 variations in consumer
        behaviour


                             16-1
Chapter 16:
         Culture and cross-cultural
     variations in consumer behaviour
1. Concept of culture
2. How culture...
Cultural influences—Overview

1. Definitions
2. Cultural values
3. Cross-cultural variations
4. Non-verbal communications
...
Definition of culture

• Complex concept that includes knowledge,
  beliefs, art, law, morals, custom, and any
  other cap...
The Concept of Culture

                Culture is the
                complex whole that
                includes knowled...
Variables influencing cross-cultural
       marketing strategies




                                       16-6
Culture
• Is a comprehensive concept
• Influences our preferences
• Is acquired from our experiences and
  learning
• Supp...
Cultural values, norms, sanctions and
        consumption patterns




                                    16-8
Culture and change

• Cultures are not static and evolve and
  change slowly over time
• Sometimes changes can be rapid
  ...
Interaction between values, norms, and
         consumption patterns




                                     16-10
Classification of cultural values
• Three broad classifications are used:
  –   Other-oriented

  –   Environment-oriented...
Variations in Cultural Values

             Other-Oriented Values

Reflect a society’s view
of the appropriate
relationshi...
Variations in Cultural Values

       Environment-Oriented Values

Prescribe a society’s
relationship to its
economic and ...
Variations in Cultural Values

             Self-Oriented Values
Reflect the objectives and approaches to life that
the in...
Other-oriented values
• Individual vs collective (initiative,
    conformity)
•   Romantic orientation (love)
•   Adult vs...
Variations in Cultural Values

              Other-Oriented Values
                    Individual/Collective
Are individua...
Variations in Cultural Values
            Other-Oriented Values
                    Youth/Age

Is family life organized
to...
Variations in Cultural Values
             Other-Oriented Values
               Extended/Limited Family

To what extent do...
Variations in Cultural Values

            Other-Oriented Values
                Masculine/Feminine
To what extend does so...
Variations in Cultural Values
         Other-Oriented Values
          Competitive/Cooperative


Does one obtain
success b...
Variations in Cultural Values

             Other-Oriented Values
                 Diversity/Uniformity
Does the culture e...
Environment-oriented values
• Cleanliness (extent of)
• Performance vs status (performance or
    class)
•   Tradition vs ...
Variations in Cultural Values

        Environment-Oriented Values
                  Cleanliness

To what extent is
cleanl...
Variations in Cultural Values
            Environment-Oriented Values
                   Performance/Status
Is the culture...
Variations in Cultural Values
         Environment-Oriented Values

                   Tradition/Change
Is tradition value...
Variations in Cultural Values
                Environment-Oriented Values
                                    Tradition/Ch...
Variations in Cultural Values

          Environment-Oriented Values
                  Risk taking/Security
Are those who ...
Variations in Cultural Values

        Environment-Oriented Values
              Problem solving/Fatalistic
Are people enc...
Variations in Cultural Values

       Environment-Oriented Values
                      Nature
Is nature regarded as somet...
Self-oriented values
• Active vs passive (physical activity)
• Material vs non-material approach
    (acquisition?)
•   Ha...
Variations in Cultural Values

             Self-Oriented Values
                   Active/Passive
Is a physically active ...
Variations in Cultural Values
                 Self-Oriented Values

            Sensual gratification/Abstinence
To what ...
Applications in Consumer Behavior


Ad for Calvin Klein
underwear:
OK in U.S. and
France.
Not appropriate in
cultures that...
Variations in Cultural Values
               Self-Oriented Values
                 Material/Nonmaterial
How much importanc...
Variations in Cultural Values

             Self-Oriented Values
                 Hard work/Leisure
Is a person who works ...
Variations in Cultural Values

              Self-Oriented Values
   Postponed gratification/Immediate gratification
Are p...
Variations in Cultural Values

              Self-Oriented Values
                  Religious/Secular
To what extent are b...
The Australasian culture
• Australasian values
  – Self-oriented values
  – Environment-oriented values
  – Self-oriented ...
Australasian self-oriented values
• Hard work valued
• Strong bias for action
• May be a lessening of self-gratification
 ...
Australasian environment-oriented
               values
Traditionally have admired:
• Cleanliness
• Change
• Performance
•...
Australasian other-orientated
             values
• Traditionally (Aust-NZ) have been
 individualistic, competitive, roman...
Australasian values dictate that hard work
               is desirable




                                       16-42
Western society accepts open courtship




                                    16-43
Cultural variations in non-verbal
         communications
Translation problems in marketing




                          ...
Cross-cultural variations:
     Factors influencing non-verbal
            communications
• Time
• Space
• Friendship
• Ag...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications




                                   16-46
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications

                       Time
              The meaning of time vari...
Time perspective
Monochronic and polychronic cultures




                                       16-48
Non-verbal communications
             (cont.)
• Space
• Friendship
• Agreements
• Things
• Symbols
• Etiquette



       ...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications

                       Space

              •   Overall use and me...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications

                   Symbols
             Colors, animals, shapes,
 ...
Meaning of numbers, colours and other
 symbols, in different cultures – Part 1




                                       ...
Meaning of numbers, colours and other
 symbols, in different cultures - Part 2




                                      1...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications

                Relationships
            How quickly and easily d...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications

                  Agreements
            How does a culture ensure...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications
                       Things
            The cultural meaning of t...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications
                        Etiquette
          Meishi is an important ...
Cultural Variations in Nonverbal
       Communications
                        Etiquette
          The generally accepted ...
Etiquette
• Eye contact with business clients
• Touching a customer on the arm or
  shoulder
• Contact between males




 ...
Developing a cross-cultural
       marketing strategy
Seven questions:
1. Is it a homogenous culture?
2. What needs will t...
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BB Chapter Sixteen : Culture And Cross Cultural

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BB Chapter Sixteen : Culture And Cross Cultural

  1. 1. Chapter Sixteen Culture and cross-cultural variations in consumer behaviour 16-1
  2. 2. Chapter 16: Culture and cross-cultural variations in consumer behaviour 1. Concept of culture 2. How culture is shared and acquired 3. Cultural values classified into 3 categories 4. Culture also involves non-verbal communications 5. Consumption practices are influenced by cultural content 6. Considerations before undertaking cross- cultural or ethnic marketing 16-2
  3. 3. Cultural influences—Overview 1. Definitions 2. Cultural values 3. Cross-cultural variations 4. Non-verbal communications 5. Cross-cultural marketing strategy 16-3
  4. 4. Definition of culture • Complex concept that includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities acquired by humans as members of society. • Culture includes almost everything that influences an individual’s thought processes and behaviours. 16-4
  5. 5. The Concept of Culture Culture is the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society. 16-5
  6. 6. Variables influencing cross-cultural marketing strategies 16-6
  7. 7. Culture • Is a comprehensive concept • Influences our preferences • Is acquired from our experiences and learning • Supplies the boundaries for behaviour in modern societies • Consumers are seldom aware of cultural influences 16-7
  8. 8. Cultural values, norms, sanctions and consumption patterns 16-8
  9. 9. Culture and change • Cultures are not static and evolve and change slowly over time • Sometimes changes can be rapid – Technological advances – Dramatic events e.g. war • Marketers need to monitor changes 16-9
  10. 10. Interaction between values, norms, and consumption patterns 16-10
  11. 11. Classification of cultural values • Three broad classifications are used: – Other-oriented – Environment-oriented – Self-oriented 16-11
  12. 12. Variations in Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values Reflect a society’s view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society. 16-12
  13. 13. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Prescribe a society’s relationship to its economic and technical as well as its physical environment. 16-13
  14. 14. Variations in Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values Reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable. 16-14
  15. 15. Other-oriented values • Individual vs collective (initiative, conformity) • Romantic orientation (love) • Adult vs child (child’s place) • Masculine vs feminine (male role) • Competition vs cooperation (excel or not?) • Youth vs age (wisdom of elders) 16-15
  16. 16. Variations in Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values Individual/Collective Are individual activity and initiative valued more highly than collective activity and conformity? Asian cultures more collective U.S. culture more individualistic 16-16
  17. 17. Variations in Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values Youth/Age Is family life organized to meet the needs of the children or the adults? Are younger or older people viewed as leaders and role models? 16-17
  18. 18. Variations in Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values Extended/Limited Family To what extent does one have a life-long obligation to numerous family members? Extended family critical in South/ Central America 16-18
  19. 19. Variations in Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values Masculine/Feminine To what extend does social power automatically go to males? 16-19
  20. 20. Variations in Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values Competitive/Cooperative Does one obtain success by excelling over others or by cooperating with them? 16-20
  21. 21. Variations in Cultural Values Other-Oriented Values Diversity/Uniformity Does the culture embrace variation in religious belief, ethnic background, political views, and other important behaviors and attitudes? 16-21
  22. 22. Environment-oriented values • Cleanliness (extent of) • Performance vs status (performance or class) • Tradition vs change (new behaviours?) • Risk-taking vs security (risk encouraged?) • Problem-solving vs fatalism (problem- solving or acceptance encouraged?) • Nature (admired or overcome?) 16-22
  23. 23. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Cleanliness To what extent is cleanliness pursued beyond the minimum needed for health? U.S. very high on personal hygiene – some think to an extreme! 16-23
  24. 24. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Performance/Status Is the culture’s reward system based on performance or on inherited factors such as family or class? Closely related to the concept of power distance, which refers to the degree to which people accept inequality in power, authority, status, and wealth as natural or inherent in society. 16-24
  25. 25. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Tradition/Change Is tradition valued simply for the sake of tradition? Is change or “progress” an acceptable reason for altering established patterns? 16-25
  26. 26. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Tradition/Change (Cont.) A focus on technology as an indicator of change illustrates some dramatic differences across cultures that show the following: The above represent Internet users and cell phones as a percent of total population 16-26
  27. 27. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Risk taking/Security Are those who risk their established positions to overcome obstacles or achieve high goals admired more than those who do not? A society that does not admire risk taking is unlikely to develop enough entrepreneurs to achieve economic change and growth. 16-27
  28. 28. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Problem solving/Fatalistic Are people encouraged to overcome all problems, or do they take a “what will be, well be” attitude? Is there an optimistic, “we can do it” orientation? Mexico and Middle-East Countries tend to fall toward the fatalistic end of the continuum. 16-28
  29. 29. Variations in Cultural Values Environment-Oriented Values Nature Is nature regarded as something to be admired or overcome? 16-29
  30. 30. Self-oriented values • Active vs passive (physical activity) • Material vs non-material approach (acquisition?) • Hard work vs leisure (admire hard work?) • Postponed vs immediate gratification (save/enjoy now) • Sensual gratification vs abstinence (food, drink) • Humour vs seriousness (is life serious?) 16-30
  31. 31. Variations in Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values Active/Passive Is a physically active approach to life valued more highly than a less active orientation? 16-31
  32. 32. Variations in Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values Sensual gratification/Abstinence To what extent is it acceptable to enjoy sensual pleasures such as food, drink, and sex? Cultures differ in their acceptance of sensual gratification. 16-32
  33. 33. Applications in Consumer Behavior Ad for Calvin Klein underwear: OK in U.S. and France. Not appropriate in cultures that place a high value on abstinence. 16-33
  34. 34. Variations in Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values Material/Nonmaterial How much importance is attached to the acquisition of material wealth? Two types of materialism: 1. Instrumental materialism – is the acquisition of things to enable one to do something. 2. Terminal materialism – is the acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself. 16-34
  35. 35. Variations in Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values Hard work/Leisure Is a person who works harder than economically necessary admired more than one who does not? 16-35
  36. 36. Variations in Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values Postponed gratification/Immediate gratification Are people encouraged to “save for a rainy day” or to “live for today”? 16-36
  37. 37. Variations in Cultural Values Self-Oriented Values Religious/Secular To what extent are behaviors and attitudes based on the rules specified by a religious doctrine? 16-37
  38. 38. The Australasian culture • Australasian values – Self-oriented values – Environment-oriented values – Self-oriented values 16-38
  39. 39. Australasian self-oriented values • Hard work valued • Strong bias for action • May be a lessening of self-gratification –But very high personal debt • Material orientation • Humorous outlook 16-39
  40. 40. Australasian environment-oriented values Traditionally have admired: • Cleanliness • Change • Performance • Risk taking • Conquest of nature How have these changed? 16-40
  41. 41. Australasian other-orientated values • Traditionally (Aust-NZ) have been individualistic, competitive, romantic, masculine, youthful, and parent- oriented societies How are these changing? 16-41
  42. 42. Australasian values dictate that hard work is desirable 16-42
  43. 43. Western society accepts open courtship 16-43
  44. 44. Cultural variations in non-verbal communications Translation problems in marketing 16-44
  45. 45. Cross-cultural variations: Factors influencing non-verbal communications • Time • Space • Friendship • Agreements • Things • Symbols • Etiquette 16-45
  46. 46. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications 16-46
  47. 47. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Time The meaning of time varies between cultures in two major ways: • Time perspective—the culture’s overall orientation toward time (monochronic monochronic vs. polychronic polychronic) • Interpretations assigned to specific uses of time 16-47
  48. 48. Time perspective Monochronic and polychronic cultures 16-48
  49. 49. Non-verbal communications (cont.) • Space • Friendship • Agreements • Things • Symbols • Etiquette 16-49
  50. 50. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Space • Overall use and meanings assigned to space vary widely among different cultures -how office space is allocated -Personal space 16-50
  51. 51. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Symbols Colors, animals, shapes, numbers, and music have varying meanings across cultures. Failure to recognize the meaning assigned to a symbol can cause serious problems! 16-51
  52. 52. Meaning of numbers, colours and other symbols, in different cultures – Part 1 16-52
  53. 53. Meaning of numbers, colours and other symbols, in different cultures - Part 2 16-53
  54. 54. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Relationships How quickly and easily do cultures form relationships and make friends? •Americans tend to form relationships and friends quickly and easily. •Chinese relationships are much more complex. Under the concept of guanxi, an individual can draw upon personal connections/relationships to secure resources or advantages when doing business as well as in the course of social life. 16-54
  55. 55. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Agreements How does a culture ensure business obligations are honored? How are disagreements resolved? Some cultures rely on a legal system; others rely on relationships, friendships, kinship, local moral principles, or informal customs to guide business conduct. 16-55
  56. 56. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Things The cultural meaning of things leads to purchase patterns that one would not otherwise predict. The differing meanings that cultures attach to things, including products, make gift-giving a particularly difficult task. For example, what type of gift is appropriate and when does receipt of a gift “require” a gift in return? 16-56
  57. 57. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Etiquette Meishi is an important aspect of Japanese business etiquette…”a man without a Meishi has no identity in Japan.” What is Meishi? It is the exchange of business cards! 16-57
  58. 58. Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communications Etiquette The generally accepted ways of behaving in social situations. Behaviors considered rude or obnoxious in one culture may be quite acceptable in another! Normal voice tone, pitch, and speed of speech differ between cultures and languages, as do the use of gestures. 16-58
  59. 59. Etiquette • Eye contact with business clients • Touching a customer on the arm or shoulder • Contact between males 16-59
  60. 60. Developing a cross-cultural marketing strategy Seven questions: 1. Is it a homogenous culture? 2. What needs will the product fill? 3. Can enough afford the product? 4. What values are relevant to this product? 5. What are the distribution, political and legal structures? 6. How can the firm communicate about the product? 7. What are the ethical implications? 16-60

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