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Lifespan Chapter 1 Online Stud 1202019114528164 4

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Lifespan Chapter 1 Online Stud 1202019114528164 4

  1. 1. Welcome to Psychology 41 Lifespan Development A pattern of change involving growth and deliine, from the womb to the tomb.
  2. 2. Psychology 41 Lifespan Development <ul><li>Be on time! </li></ul><ul><li>Silence your cell phones and pagers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Have fun! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lifespan Development Write three examples of each of the following: <ul><li>Every person is like every other person. </li></ul><ul><li>Every person is like some other person. </li></ul><ul><li>Every person is like no other person. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lifespan Development <ul><li>Lifespan Dev’t is: </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong </li></ul><ul><li>Multidimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Multidirectional </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic, multidisciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology, culture, and individual factors all work together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[next] </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Bronfenbrenner and the bioecological approach <ul><ul><li>Four major levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macrosystem and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronosystem </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Children Exposed to Six Stressors: 14 3 7 73 12 16 21 24 32 45 49 Percentage Middle-income children Poor children Exposure to violence Crowding Family turmoil Child separation Excessive noise Poor housing quality Bioecological Approach
  7. 7. Developmentalists focus on different topics… <ul><li>Physical Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition, declining athletic performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“How does malnutrition affect the growth of children?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“How does an athlete’s physical performance decline during adulthood?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Topical areas studied by developmentalists <ul><li>2. Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person’s behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning, memory, problem solving skills, and intelligence across the lifespan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“How do you explain academic successes and failures?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Can people who experience a traumatic event as young children remember it when they become adults?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Topical areas studied by developmentalists <ul><li>3a. Personality Development (part of socioemotional) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another; remain stable or change over the life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Are there stable, enduring personality traits that persist throughout the lifespan?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Does personality change? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Topical areas studied by developmentalists <ul><li>3b. Social Development (part of socioemotional) </li></ul>How does poverty, racism, and divorce affect development? How are one’s peers predictive of future successes and failures? <ul><ul><li>Interactions and social relationships; how they grow, change, and remain stable </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Biological processes Socioemotional processes Cognitive processes Developmental Changes Are a Result of the Interaction of, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
  12. 12. Biological processes Socioemotional processes Cognitive processes Developmental Changes Are a Result of the Interaction of, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
  13. 13. The lifespan is usually divided into broad age ranges.
  14. 15. <ul><li>People mature at different rates and reach developmental milestones at different points </li></ul>A 13-year-old boy waits to leave on patrol in Nicaragua
  15. 16. Key Issues in Lifespan Development <ul><li>Continuous vs. Discontinuous Change </li></ul><ul><li>Ethological Theory and Critical/Sensitive Periods </li></ul><ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Stability vs. Change </li></ul>
  16. 17. Theoretical Perspectives <ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Freud – Psychoanalytic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson – Psychosocial Development </li></ul>
  17. 18. Behavioral Perspective (Skinner) We can only accurately study what can be observed.
  18. 19. Social Learning Perspective (Bandura) Person Behavior Environment
  19. 20. Cognitive Perspectives Piaget <ul><li>Information-Procesing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors can be broken down into steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural theory </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Research Methods <ul><li>Case study and interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational research: tells whether the values of two variables are related . </li></ul>CORRELATION DOES NOT SHOW CAUSALITY!

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