SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Vegetable grafting: A new crop improvement approach.pptx

Here, I have described about vegetable grafting and it's application in plant breeding. In this prescription, I have mentioned about history, methods, practical application to fight against biotic and abiotic stresses, various important rootstocks, several case studies and achievements related to vegetable grafting. This presentation will be useful for horticulturists who study olericulture as well as plant breeders.

1 of 69
Download to read offline
1
VEGETABLE GRAFTING: A NEW CROP
IMPROVEMENT APPROACH
Speaker
Suthar Himul Jayeshbhai
Reg. No. 2010122065
M. Sc. (Agri.)
Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding
College of Agriculture
JAU, Junagadh
Major Guide
Dr. V. H. Kachhadia
Associate Research Scientist
Vegetable Research Station
JAU, Junagadh
Minor Guide
Dr. H. P. Gajera
Professor & Head
Dept. of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology
JAU, Junagadh
2
C O N T E N T S
Introduction
Grafting
Rootstock
Breeding methods
Important rootstocks
Case studies
Conclusion
3
INTRODUCTION
4
INTRODUCTION
 The fresh and edible portions of
herbaceous plants are termed as
vegetables, which are important
component of a healthy diet
 2021 : “International Year of Fruit
and Vegetables”
 Vegetables are the important source
of vitamins and minerals, dietary
fibers and antioxidants
5
Source: Anon., 2021
Table 1: Vegetable production in India 2021-22
Sr.
No.
States Area (‘000 ha)
Production (‘000
Tonnes)
1. Bihar 904.6 17,855.4
2. Gujarat 832.4 16,614.8
3. MP 1,161.4 22,206.3
4. Maharashtra 1,192.5 17,189.5
5. Odisha 658.1 9,280.5
6. UP 1,350.4 32,505.1
7. West Bengal 1,532.8 28,450.1
India 11,374.4 209,143.4
6

Recommended

Climate Change
Climate ChangeClimate Change
Climate ChangeMANOJ C A
 
Cultural, physiological and molecular approaches to the improvement of econom...
Cultural, physiological and molecular approaches to the improvement of econom...Cultural, physiological and molecular approaches to the improvement of econom...
Cultural, physiological and molecular approaches to the improvement of econom...MUsmanZaki
 
The Effects of Different Growing Mediums in a Hydroponically Grown Lettuce
The Effects of Different Growing Mediums in a Hydroponically Grown LettuceThe Effects of Different Growing Mediums in a Hydroponically Grown Lettuce
The Effects of Different Growing Mediums in a Hydroponically Grown Lettuceijtsrd
 
Evaluation of Different Growing Substrates on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) under ...
Evaluation of Different Growing Substrates on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) under ...Evaluation of Different Growing Substrates on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) under ...
Evaluation of Different Growing Substrates on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) under ...Innspub Net
 
Influence of water stress and rhizobial inoculation on growth and yield of se...
Influence of water stress and rhizobial inoculation on growth and yield of se...Influence of water stress and rhizobial inoculation on growth and yield of se...
Influence of water stress and rhizobial inoculation on growth and yield of se...Innspub Net
 
Vijay doc sem 1 [autosaved]
Vijay doc sem 1 [autosaved]Vijay doc sem 1 [autosaved]
Vijay doc sem 1 [autosaved]Dr. Vijay Joshi
 

More Related Content

Similar to Vegetable grafting: A new crop improvement approach.pptx

Grafting in Vegetable Crops
Grafting in Vegetable CropsGrafting in Vegetable Crops
Grafting in Vegetable CropsAnish Sah
 
Maximizing crop root growth in no-till systems
Maximizing crop root growth in no-till systemsMaximizing crop root growth in no-till systems
Maximizing crop root growth in no-till systemsjbgruver
 
Pruning and grafting in vegetable crops
Pruning and grafting in vegetable cropsPruning and grafting in vegetable crops
Pruning and grafting in vegetable cropsAnusha K R
 
Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...
Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...
Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...Agriculture Journal IJOEAR
 
Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...
Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...
Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...Marisela Stone
 
Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurora
Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of AuroraVegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurora
Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurorasodj49v
 
Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...
Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...
Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...AI Publications
 
Transgenic crops and their uses in various Fields
Transgenic crops and their uses in various FieldsTransgenic crops and their uses in various Fields
Transgenic crops and their uses in various FieldsHassanMehmoodSipra
 
Plant tissue culture lab,sedf
Plant tissue culture lab,sedfPlant tissue culture lab,sedf
Plant tissue culture lab,sedfiqra junejo
 
Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019
Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019
Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019RonHazarika
 
Approaches to mitigate climate change
Approaches to mitigate climate change Approaches to mitigate climate change
Approaches to mitigate climate change Swati Shukla
 
Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...
Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...
Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...AI Publications
 
Classical and innovative approaches for the improvement of
Classical and innovative approaches for the improvement ofClassical and innovative approaches for the improvement of
Classical and innovative approaches for the improvement ofmithraa thirumalai
 
Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...
Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...
Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...Innspub Net
 
Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue culture
 Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue culture Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue culture
Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue cultureAmare Kassahun
 
Plant nutrition final lab report
Plant nutrition final lab reportPlant nutrition final lab report
Plant nutrition final lab reportPuranBridgemohan
 

Similar to Vegetable grafting: A new crop improvement approach.pptx (20)

Grafting in Vegetable Crops
Grafting in Vegetable CropsGrafting in Vegetable Crops
Grafting in Vegetable Crops
 
Maximizing crop root growth in no-till systems
Maximizing crop root growth in no-till systemsMaximizing crop root growth in no-till systems
Maximizing crop root growth in no-till systems
 
0210 A Review of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0210 A Review of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)0210 A Review of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
0210 A Review of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
 
Pruning and grafting in vegetable crops
Pruning and grafting in vegetable cropsPruning and grafting in vegetable crops
Pruning and grafting in vegetable crops
 
Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...
Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...
Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be appli...
 
Vegetable Grafting
Vegetable GraftingVegetable Grafting
Vegetable Grafting
 
0212 Opportunities for Rice Research and Production Deriving from the System ...
0212 Opportunities for Rice Research and Production Deriving from the System ...0212 Opportunities for Rice Research and Production Deriving from the System ...
0212 Opportunities for Rice Research and Production Deriving from the System ...
 
Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...
Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...
Important Factors That Affect Plant Growth And Development...
 
Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurora
Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of AuroraVegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurora
Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurora
 
Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...
Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...
Effect of Seedling Density on Growth Attributes of Cauliflower variety Kathma...
 
Transgenic crops and their uses in various Fields
Transgenic crops and their uses in various FieldsTransgenic crops and their uses in various Fields
Transgenic crops and their uses in various Fields
 
Plant tissue culture lab,sedf
Plant tissue culture lab,sedfPlant tissue culture lab,sedf
Plant tissue culture lab,sedf
 
Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019
Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019
Rice stress related gene expression analysis 2019
 
Approaches to mitigate climate change
Approaches to mitigate climate change Approaches to mitigate climate change
Approaches to mitigate climate change
 
JPAIRVol22_
JPAIRVol22_JPAIRVol22_
JPAIRVol22_
 
Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...
Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...
Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Cultivars throu...
 
Classical and innovative approaches for the improvement of
Classical and innovative approaches for the improvement ofClassical and innovative approaches for the improvement of
Classical and innovative approaches for the improvement of
 
Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...
Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...
Isolation of endophytes from potato and their antagonist effect against Fusar...
 
Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue culture
 Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue culture Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue culture
Kasahun's presentation on garlic tissue culture
 
Plant nutrition final lab report
Plant nutrition final lab reportPlant nutrition final lab report
Plant nutrition final lab report
 

Recently uploaded

Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...
Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...
Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...AmalDhivaharS
 
5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdf
5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdf5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdf
5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdfSubranjitaPriyadarsh
 
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Naresh Gupta
 
Chemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptx
Chemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptxChemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptx
Chemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptxperiyar arts college
 
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow jointElbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow jointTELISHA2
 
electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.Silpa Selvaraj
 
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its usescommercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its usesSilpa Selvaraj
 
Genetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdf
Genetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdfGenetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdf
Genetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdfmughalgumar440
 
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesVolatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesAhmed Metwaly
 
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English BrochureInsilico Gen
 
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...Abhinav S
 
American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603
American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603
American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603SOCIEDAD JULIO GARAVITO
 
Seminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina CharrisSeminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina CharrisLinaMarcelaCharrisRa
 
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.Silpa Selvaraj
 
Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...
Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...
Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...AmalDhivaharS
 
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)Ahmed Metwaly
 
discussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptx
discussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptxdiscussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptx
discussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptxShePerezDelaCruz
 
Seminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina CharrisSeminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina CharrisLinaMarcelaCharrisRa
 
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.pptgreen chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.pptRashmiSanghi1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...
Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...
Cytotoxic Activity of Linum usitatissimum L. Essential oil against Lung Adeno...
 
5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdf
5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdf5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdf
5FSHB- TANDOOR MURDER CASE (GROUP 1).pdf
 
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
 
Chemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptx
Chemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptxChemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptx
Chemical Bonding and it's Types 001.pptx
 
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow jointElbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
Elbow joint - Anatomy of the Elbow joint
 
electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
electrophoresis: types, advantages, disadvantages and applications.
 
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its usescommercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
 
Genetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdf
Genetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdfGenetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdf
Genetic Code. A comprehensive overview..pdf
 
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduatesVolatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
Volatile Oils-Introduction for pharmacy students and graduates
 
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
 
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
 
American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603
American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603
American Eclipse A Nation’s Epic Race to Catch the_240225_095603
 
Seminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina CharrisSeminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina Charris
 
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy,  reproduction , life cycle etc.
PSILOTUM : structure, morphology, anatomy, reproduction , life cycle etc.
 
Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...
Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...
Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthocyanins and Corresponding Introduction in Dieta...
 
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
 
discussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptx
discussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptxdiscussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptx
discussion on the endocrine system for science grade10.pptx
 
Seminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina CharrisSeminario biología molecular Lina Charris
Seminario biología molecular Lina Charris
 
REGULATION OF METABOLISM IN PLANTS AND THE DIFFERENT MECHANISMS
REGULATION OF METABOLISM IN PLANTS  AND THE DIFFERENT MECHANISMSREGULATION OF METABOLISM IN PLANTS  AND THE DIFFERENT MECHANISMS
REGULATION OF METABOLISM IN PLANTS AND THE DIFFERENT MECHANISMS
 
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.pptgreen chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
green chemistry, clean sustainable environment.ppt
 

Vegetable grafting: A new crop improvement approach.pptx

  • 1. 1
  • 2. VEGETABLE GRAFTING: A NEW CROP IMPROVEMENT APPROACH Speaker Suthar Himul Jayeshbhai Reg. No. 2010122065 M. Sc. (Agri.) Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding College of Agriculture JAU, Junagadh Major Guide Dr. V. H. Kachhadia Associate Research Scientist Vegetable Research Station JAU, Junagadh Minor Guide Dr. H. P. Gajera Professor & Head Dept. of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology JAU, Junagadh 2
  • 3. C O N T E N T S Introduction Grafting Rootstock Breeding methods Important rootstocks Case studies Conclusion 3
  • 5. INTRODUCTION  The fresh and edible portions of herbaceous plants are termed as vegetables, which are important component of a healthy diet  2021 : “International Year of Fruit and Vegetables”  Vegetables are the important source of vitamins and minerals, dietary fibers and antioxidants 5
  • 6. Source: Anon., 2021 Table 1: Vegetable production in India 2021-22 Sr. No. States Area (‘000 ha) Production (‘000 Tonnes) 1. Bihar 904.6 17,855.4 2. Gujarat 832.4 16,614.8 3. MP 1,161.4 22,206.3 4. Maharashtra 1,192.5 17,189.5 5. Odisha 658.1 9,280.5 6. UP 1,350.4 32,505.1 7. West Bengal 1,532.8 28,450.1 India 11,374.4 209,143.4 6
  • 7.  Per capita consumption of vegetables in India is only about 180 g/day/person though the vegetable requirement is 300g/day/person  Vegetable production is hindered by biotic (Insect-pests) and abiotic (environmental & soil stress) factors.  Among all management tactics, vegetable grafting is considered as eco- friendly for sustainable vegetable production as a result of the resistant rootstock reduces the dependency upon agrochemicals for control soil borne pest (Root knot nematode) and disease (Fusarium wilt, Bacterial wilt, Root rot, etc). 7
  • 8.  The method of joining parts of two different plants in a manner that they form a unit and function as one plant is known as ‘grafting’  Grafting : ‘PHYSICAL HYBRIDS’  Scion : Produce fruit  Rootstock : Provide important traits  Plants propagated by grafting are true- to-type. GRAFTING 8
  • 9. HISTORY  During 5th century in China, self grafting was used as a technique to produce large sized gourd fruits.  Commercial grafting in vegetables originated in early 20th century with aim to manage soil borne pathogens.  However, scientific vegetable grafting was first launched in Japan and Korea in late 1920s to avoid soil borne diseases.  Scientific studies investigating and developing rootstocks was initiated in the 1960s in Korea. Bie et al., 2017 9
  • 10. LANDMARKS IN VEGETABLE GRAFTING 10
  • 11. GENETIC BASIS OF VEGETABLE GRAFTING • In grafted plant, it is found that genetic information is being traded between grafting partners. • Exchange of genetic material between stock and scion takes place in the form of small RNA molecules, these molecules transported via phloem tissue. • In grafted plants, epigenetic modifications such as alterations in DNA methylation level is also observed. Majhi et al., 2023 11
  • 13. 1. Cleft grafting 2. Tongue approach grafting 3. Tube grafting 4. Hole insertion grafting 5. Slant grafting 6. Pin grafting 13
  • 14.  The rootstock stem is cut horizontally and 0.5 cm long vertical incision is created into the middle of the rootstock.  The scion stem is cut into a 0.5 cm long wedge and is inserted into the vertical incision in the rootstock and the joint is secured by the help of grafting clips  Generally solanaceous crops are grafted by conventional cleft grafting CLEFT GRAFTING 14 14
  • 15.  The matching 45° incisions are made in both scion and rootstock stems, to form “tongues”  The both stem tongues are joined together in order that the cut surfaces are in contact  After fully healing, the rootstock top and the scion roots are cut off from the grafted plant  This method is not utilized in rootstocks with hollow hypocotyls TONGUE APPROACH GRAFTING 15
  • 16.  Cut rootstock beneath cotyledons in a 45° or sharper angle  Prepare the scion with matching hypocotyl width cut in the same angle at 5-10 mm below the cotyledons  Stock and scion should have equal diameter  Place one tube a halfway down on top of the cut end of rootstock hypocotyl  Insert the scion into the grafting tube in order that cut surface aligns perfectly with that of rootstock TUBE GRAFTING 16
  • 17.  When scion and rootstock have hollow hypocotyls, this methodology is preferred  A hole in the rootstock is created for insertion of the scion  The scion is then inserted in the hole in the rootstock and the joint is secured by the help of grafting clips HOLE INSERTION GRAFTING 17
  • 18.  Recently, it has been adopted by commercial seedling nurseries because it is applicable to most vegetable crops and mainly developed for robotic grafting  Grafting can be done by creating slant cuts on both rootstock and scion by retaining only one cotyledon leaf on the rootstock SLANT/SPLICE GRAFTING 18
  • 19. PIN GRAFTING  In this method, instead of grafting clips, specially designed pins are used to hold the graft position  The size of the ceramic pin is nearly about 15 mm long and 0.5 mm in diagonal width of the hexagonal cross-section  The pins are made from natural ceramic; therefore, it can be left on the plant without any problem. Bamboo stick can also be used 19
  • 20. MECHANIZED GRAFTING  First semi automatic cucumber grafting system was commercialized in 1993  A semi automatic grafting machine can produce 400–600 grafts/hour, whereas manual grafting techniques produce about 1,000 grafts/ person/day  A fully automated grafting robot produce 700 grafts/hours with 90- 93% success rate 20
  • 21. Root stocks Scions Compatibility Grafting aids Screen house Healing chamber Acclimatization chamber PREREQUISITES OF GRAFTING 21
  • 22. 22 Grafting Clips Grafting Blade Grafting Tubes Screen House Healing Chamber 22
  • 23. Best time to graft Source:-http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19315260.2017.1357062 23
  • 24. S T E P S O F G R A F T I N G 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 Select scions and rootstocks Schedule the best time to graft Make the grafts Plant the seeds Monitor the healing process Acclimate the healed grafts Plant grafted plants 24
  • 27.  The part of the graft that provides root system to the grafted plant is known as ‘rootstock’  Rootstock is the base and root portion of a grafted plant  Any compatible wild spp. / resistant variety / resistant hybrid can be used as rootstock 27 ROOTSTOCK
  • 28. IDEAL ROOTSTOCK  It must have good compatibility with the scion  It should give maximum economic life to the plant  It should be well adaptable to the agro climatic conditions  It must have resistance against biotic stress like soil borne pests and disease  It should have tolerance to drought, salt and frost  It must have a positive impact on the scion's performance 28
  • 29. BIOTIC STRESS  Biotic stresses are negative influences caused by other living organisms  In agriculture, biotic stress is a major cause of pre and post harvest losses  Biotic stress agents directly deprive their host for its nutrients, leading to reduce plant vigor and in extreme cases, death of the host plant  The intensity of biotic stress varies depending on the weather, cropping system, cultivation practices, type of crops, crop varieties, and their resistance levels 29
  • 30. LOSSES IN VEGETABLES DUE TO BIOTIC STRESS Source: NIBSM, 2020 40% 30
  • 31. ABIOTIC STRESS  Abiotic stress cause considerable losses in vegetable crops across the globe  An estimated loss in average yield of major crops due to abiotic stresses is around 50%  Due to global warming and ongoing climate change, impact of these stresses are going to be increase across the globe  Impact of abiotic stress can vary depending on the genotype, growth stage of plant, intensity and duration of stress. 31
  • 35. BREEDING APPROACHES FOR ROOTSTOCK IMPROVEMENT Conventional Methods •Selection •Hybridization o Intra-specific hybridization o Interspecific hybridization o Intergeneric hybridization Non-Conventional Methods •Somatic hybridization •Transgenic breeding Dhoot et al., 2017 35
  • 36. Thompson et al., 2017 36
  • 38. IMPORTANT TOMATO ROOTSTOCK Species Specific features Solanum pennelli Tolerance to drought S. galapagense Tolarant to salt S. habrochaites Resistance to cold and diseases (TMV) S. chilense Resistance to drought and diseases S. Neorickii Resistant to bacterial diseases S. Pimpinellifolium Colour, quality, resistance to disease S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme Tolerance to humidity, resistance to fungi and root rot S. peruvianum Resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus and RKN Source http://www.vegetablegrafting.org/ 38
  • 39. Species Specific features S. macrocarpon & S. gilo Tolerant to drought S. torvum Tolerant to flooding, heavy metal Resistance to Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt S. xanthocarpum Resistance to phomopsis blight S. sisymbrifolium Resistant to little leaf S. auriculatum Resistant to little leaf disease S. indicum Resistant to RKN IMPORTANT BRINJAL ROOTSTOCK Source http://www.vegetablegrafting.org/ 39
  • 40. Rootstock (species) Specific features Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) VRS, FT, LTT Squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) VRS, FT, LTT Interspecific hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. × C. moschata Duch.) VRS, FT, LTT Pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) VRS, FT, HTT Wintermelon (Benincasa hispida Thunb.) GDR African horned (AH) cucumber (Cucumis metuliferus ) FT, NMT IMPORTANT WATERMELON ROOTSTOCK VRS: Vigorous Root Systems FT: Fusarium Tolerance LTT: Low Temperature Tolerance NMT: Nematode Tolerance HTT: High Temperature Tolerance GDR: Good Disease Resistance Dhall et al., 2016 40
  • 41. Crop Rootstock (species) Resistance Cucumber Fig leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché) LTT, GDT Squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) FT, GDT Interspecific hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. × C. moschata Duch.) FT, LTT Bur cucumber (Sicyos angulatus L.) FT, LTT, SMT, NMT Muskmelon Squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) FT, LTT Interspecific hybrid squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. × C. moschata Duch.) FT, HTT, SMT Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) FT, HTT, SMT IMPORTANT CUCURBITS ROOTSTOCK GDT: Good Disease Tolerance SMT: High Soil Moisture Tolerance Dhall et al., 2016 41
  • 42. Crop name Bacterial wilt Fusarium wilt Pythium Root- knot nematode Flooding Salinity Tomato VI043614 (Hawaii 7996) VI043614 VI006378 - VI0006378 Egg plant GE195 VI046104 VI046104 VI046103 VI041752 TS03 EG219 EG190 RECOMMENDED ROOTSTOCK BY WORLD VEGETABLE CENTRE Source: https://avrdc.org/seed/improved-lines/rootstock/ 42
  • 44. 1 GRAFTING TOMATO FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AGAINST Fusarium WILT Objective:  To assess disease severity of Fusarium wilt on grafted tomato  To evaluate yield performance of grafted tomato against Fusarium wilt Awu et al., 2023 Greater Accra, Ghana 44
  • 45. Materials and Methods:  Two Solanum species S. macrocarpon and S. torvum used as rootstock and S. lycopersicum variety Petomech was selected as scion.  Grafting was done by cleft method of grafting.  The experiment was conducted in pots at University of Ghana with CRD design with three replications. 45 S. torvum S. macrocarpon
  • 46. Figure 1: Disease severity of grafted and non-grafted plants at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks after inoculation with F. oxysporum 46
  • 47. Rootstocks Fruit Yield/plant (g) No. of fruits/plant Non-grafted 205.1 ± 25.2 a 7 ± 1.21 a S. macrocarpon 453.1 ± 10.6 c 5 ± 1.38 a S. torvum 350.3 ± 18.5 b 7 ± 0.85 a Table 2: Yield performance of grafted and non-grafted tomato in pots infected with F. oxysporum 47 Values followed by different lowercase letter(s) within a column are significantly different at 5% probability level.
  • 48. 2 EVALUATION OF BACTERIAL WILT RESISTANCE OF WILD Solanum SPECIES THROUGH GRAFTING IN BRINJAL Objective:  Evaluation of wild Solanum species against bacterial wilt  To identify best grafting combination of eggplant for resistance against bacterial wilt Kumar et al., 2017 CAU, Pasighat 48
  • 49. Materials and Methods:  A total of four wild Solanum species as rootstocks and two eggplant genotypes as scion were included in the experiment.  Plants were grafted by cleft method of grafting.  The experiment was laid out in nursery with CRD design with four replications. Species Eggplant genotypes Solanum torvum Pusa Shyamala Solanum xanthocarpum Pusa Hybrid-6 Solanum khasianum Solanum surathense 49
  • 50. S. xanthocarpum S. khasianum S. surathense 50
  • 51. Wild Solanum species and eggplant genotypes % Wilt infection Grading Solanum torvum 5.768 Resistant Solanum khasianum 15.825 Moderately resistant Solanum xanthocarpum 46.125 Susceptible Solanum surathense 54.475 Susceptible Pusa Shyamala 72.175 Susceptible Pusa Hybrid-6 68.375 Susceptible Table 3: Response of wild Solanum species and eggplant genotypes against bacterial wilt 51
  • 52. Table 4: Effect of different wild Solanum species in percent bacterial wilt infection of grafted plants Grafting combinations % Wilt infection Grading S. torvum×Pusa Shyamala 12.225 Resistant S. xanthocarpum×Pusa Shyamala 45.500 Susceptible S. khasianum×Pusa Shyamala 29.600 Moderately Resistant S. surathense×Pusa Shyamala 58.525 Susceptible S. torvum×Pusa Hybrid-6 13.475 Resistant S. xanthocarpum×Pusa Hybrid-6 48.175 Susceptible S. khasianum×Pusa Hybrid-6 31.475 Moderately Resistant S. surathense×Pusa Hybrid-6 55.300 Susceptible Control 71.350 Susceptible 52
  • 53. 3 GRAFTING OF TOMATO ONTO SALT TOLERANT EGGPLANT ROOTSTOCKS TO IMPROVE YIELD PERFORMANCE UNDER SALINE CONDITIONS Objective:  To evaluate Effect of salinity and rootstock combinations on yield performance of tomato by using salt tolerant eggplant cultivars as a rootstocks Sanwal et al., 2022 53
  • 54. Materials and methods:  Two eggplant cultivar IC-354557 and IC-111056 used as a rootstocks and tomato variety Kashi Aman was used as scion.  Splice method of grafting was used.  Experiment was conducted as per RBD with five replications.  Experiment was carried out during winter season in 2017 and 2018.  Three different irrigation water treatments were given: 1. EC~1 dsm-1(control) 2. EC=6 dsm-1 3. EC=9 dsm-1 54
  • 55. Table 5: Effect of salinity and rootstock combinations on yield performance of tomato (Kashi Aman) in 2017 Salinity treatment Rootstock Fruit yield (g/plant) Avg. fruit weight (g) Control Non-grafted 2577.3 a 64.45 a IC-111056 2518.0 a 63.12 a IC-354557 2388.0 b 63.83 a EC 6 dsm-1 Non-grafted 1420.8 b 56.10 b IC-111056 1871.3 a 59.23 a IC-354557 1800.4 a 60.22 a EC 9 dsm-1 Non-grafted 522.8 c 41.37 b IC-111056 1265.3 a 48.63 a IC-354557 1053.4 b 47.62 a 55 Values followed by different lowercase letter(s) within a coloum are significantly different at 5% probability level.
  • 56. Table 6: Effect of salinity and rootstock combinations on yield performance of tomato (Kashi Aman) in 2018 Salinity treatment Rootstock Fruit yield (g/plant) Avg. fruit weight (g) Control Non-grafted 2243.10 b 60.15 b IC-111056 2301.87 a 61.87 a IC-354557 2227.15 b 62.05 a EC 6 dsm-1 Non-grafted 1340.77 c 54.30 a IC-111056 1781.70 a 55.82 a IC-354557 1664.05 b 54.53 a EC 9 dsm-1 Non-grafted 532.18 c 39.00 c IC-111056 1132.25 a 46.53 a IC-354557 1019.10 b 43.52 b 56 Values followed by different lowercase letter(s) within a coloum are significantly different at 5% probability level.
  • 57. 4 EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT BACTERIAL WILT RESISTANT EGGPLANT ROOTSTOCKS FOR GRAFTING TOMATO Objective:  To evaluate the Bacterial Wilt resistance, as well as the agronomical potential and the efficiency of the newly identified eggplant accessions in the field as rootstocks for tomato grafting Materials and Methods:  Five eggplant accessions were identified as bacterial wilt resistant by screening and subsequently the accessions were purified and bulked up through single-seed descent method at Worldveg. Manickam et al., 2021 Tainan, Taiwan 57
  • 58. Continue..  Bacterial wilt resistant eggplant accessions (VI041809A, VI041943, VI041945, VI041979A, and VI041984) were evaluated as rootstocks and two different fresh market tomato cultivars (Victoria and TStarE) were used as scion.  The tube grafting method was used for grafting.  Experiment was carried out as per RBD with four replications. Rootstockc Species Origin VI041809A Solanum melongena India VI041943 VI041945 VI041979A VI041984 58
  • 59. Accession Compatibility (%) Wilting (%) Disease Index (%) Survival (Out of 12 plants) 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 2018 2019 VI041809A 100 a 100 2.1 c 10.4 c 2.1 b 10.4 b 11.8 a 9.5 a VI041943 100 a 100 0.0 c 5.8 c 0.0 b 8.3 b 12.0 a 10.8 a VI041945 93 b 100 0.0 c 14.6 c 0.0 b 16.7 b 12.0 a 5.5 abc VI041979A 96 ab 100 2.1 c 7.9 c 0.8 b 10.4 b 12.0 a 9.0 ab VI041984 99 ab 100 2.1 c 20.0 c 2.1 b 20.8 b 11.8 a 8.8 ab VI045276 (R-Check) 94 ab 100 4.2 c 7.5 c 4.2 b 8.3 b 11.5 a 8.5 ab VI046095 (S-Check) 99 ab 100 100.0 a 87.5 a 100.0 a 91.7 a 0.0 c 0.0 c Self-Grafted 100 ab 100 50.0 b 100.0 a 43.8 a 100.0 a 7.0 b 2.0 c Non-Grafted - - 72.9 b 97.5 a 63.3 a 100.0 a 5.0 b 2.3 bc Table 7: Graft compatibility of different rootstocks and effect of rootstock accession on wilting %, BW disease index (DI) and field survival of grafted plants 59 Values followed by different lowercase letter(s) within a coloum are significantly different at 5% probability level.
  • 60. Table 8: Total yield (kg/plot) of grafted and non-grafted plants 60 60 Accession 2018 2019 VI041809A 26.29 ± 5.37 ab 0.71 ± 0.71 VI041943 29.36 ± 5.24 a 1.27 ± 0.87 VI041945 17.61 ± 2.9 bc 1.01 ± 0.48 VI041979A 32.49 ± 4.1 a 0.65 ± 0.33 VI041984 17.66 ± 2.43 bc 0.92 ± 0.58 VI045276 (R-Check) 24.33 ± 4.04 abc 0.83 ± 0.52 VI046095 (S-Check) 0.0 ± 0.00 d 0.29 ± 0.58 Self-grafted 17.49 ± 7.77 bc 0.00 ± 00 non-grafted 15.44 ± 4.69 c 0.07 ± 0.13 Values followed by different lowercase letter(s) within a coloum are significantly different at 5% probability level.
  • 61. 5 EVALUATION OF YIELD PERFORMANCE OF GRAFTED SEEDLINGS OF PEPPER UNDER COMMON OPEN FIELD CONDITIONS Objective:  To study impact of grafting on yield performance of pepper under common open field conditions Materials and methods:  Pepper cultivar Somborka grafted onto rootstock Rokal, Fortama F1 and non grafted plants were used in experiment.  Plants were grafted by tube method of grafting.  Experiment was carried out as per RBD with three replications. Rizani et al., 2022 Prishtina, Kosovo 61
  • 62. Rootstock Yield (kg/plant) No. of fruits/plant Fruit weight in gram Non-grafted 4.32 b 52.00 b 83.10 b Rokal 5.04 a 57.00 a 88.33 a Fortama F1 5.16 a 59.00 a 87.46 a Table 9: Effect of rootstock on yield performance in pepper under common open field conditions 62 Values followed by different lowercase letter(s) within a coloum are significantly different at 5% probability level.
  • 64. DISADVANTAGES Labour intensive if done manually Costlier when done by automatic robotic way Quality of fruit may be down by improper combination Grafting incompatibility High cost of grafted seedlings 64 Majhi et al., 2023
  • 65. 65 ACHIEVEMENTS  Grafting in Solanaceous and Cucurbitaceous crops is popular, protocols for grafting and desired rootstock accessions have been identified for these crops.  In India, at IIVR, Varanasi, UP field demonstration of grafted ‘Pomato’ (potato+tomato) and ‘Brimato’ (brinjal+tomato) was conducted during 2020-21.  CSKHPKV-Palampur is the 1st agricultural university in the country to install semi-automatic ‘Grafting Robot’ in July,2017.
  • 67. 67 CONCLUSION Grafting vegetable onto resistant rootstocks is an innovative strategy to grow susceptible scion to give enhanced economic return even in the presence of biotic and abiotic stresses. Grafting dispenses opportunities to exploit natural genetic variation for particular root traits to alter the phenotype of the shoot as per the demand. Manipulation of the scion morphology and physiology, management of the soil borne pathogens can be done by the use of suitable rootstock and scion combination. It has also emerged as an environment-friendly and climate resilient approach.
  • 68. 68 68
  • 69. 69

Editor's Notes

  1. Grafting is the act of placing a portion of one plant (bud or scion) into or on a stem, root, or branch of another (stock) in such a way that a union will be formed and the partners will continue to grow. resulting from combining at least two varieties , a rootstock and at least one scion; the first used to provide important traits and the second used to produce fruit.
  2. In this method, instead of grafting clips, specially designed pins are used to hold the grafted position. The size of the ceramic pin is nearly about 15 mm long and 0.5 mm in diagonal width of the hexagonal cross-section. The pins are made from natural ceramic; therefore, it can be left on the plant without any problem.
  3. As we have already gone through the introductory part of our seminar now we will see the review of literature part in which we will see which researches have been done related to our seminar topic. So let’s start the Review of Literature part.